1. Build and Maintain a Secure Network
Maybe an obvious comment, but it is important to understand what this means. You need to have a firewall configuration to protect data and not use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other security parameters. In order for firewalls to be effective, all communication from untrusted networks or hosts must be blocked, preventing external sources from interfacing with internal ones. An interesting point to note here is that the requirement for the firewall is to protect data, not to secure the perimeter. Far too often, administrators use the default passwords on systems as important as servers and network devices for ease of use or simply because they forgot to change them. A list of these default passwords can easily be found on the Internet and are often how hackers access the network. To best meet this requirement, it all starts with a formal password control program that expands upon best-practice policies with technologies that enable companies to have the accessibility and security needed for administrative passwords. This type of program marries policies with controls, changes and audits, to ensure best practices.
2. Protect Data
In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to ensure that data is protected when it is stored – and wherever it is stored, and that the data is encrypted when being transmitted across public networks. Although most will probably employ some type of VPN technology for transmission, the secure storage is often overlooked. An effective solution will provide a comprehensive environment to securely store sensitive data, featuring strong firewall, strong authentication, session encryption, storage encryption, extensive auditing, access control, dual control and other security measures to ensure the security and confidentiality of data. Data at rest is frequently left sitting without any form of encryption attached to it. If an intruder is able to hack past the firewall or walk off with a server, there is no protection for the data inside if it lays unencrypted. It is essential that the solution selected to meet this requirement features built-in encryption and key management mechanisms that ensure data is always secure, while at rest and while being transmitted.
3. Maintain a Vulnerability Management Program
This is primarily to ensure that you use and regularly update anti-virus software and secondly, that you develop and maintain secure systems and applications. All applications, as well as the network itself, should be protected by an anti-virus solution. And secure systems and applications exclude those that have embedded user credentials, often the case in many database applications.
4. Implement Strong Access Control Measures
This can present a challenge since it does not simply define Identity Management measures but also the need to ensure that data is only accessible on a "need to know" basis. Ensuring that users have access only to the level of data that they need is an important step in preventing data theft, particularly internal data theft. A good solution would store data in a highly departmentalized manner, allowing only authenticated users access to data based on their level of authorization. Every user should be assigned an individual account that easily allows them to access the data they need, while restricting them from accessing additional information.
5. Regularly Monitor and Test Networks
This section requires that you track and monitor all access to network resources and data and regularly test security systems and processes. One of the best ways to do this is to have an automated audit trail to assess who had access to data if a security breach was to occur. The optimum solution guarantees individual logging, while also recording every successful and unsuccessful event, such as login, data access and administrative activities. Additionally, these audit trails should also be stored in a safe manner and be encrypted and signed and unable to be altered manually. Another key feature to look for is the solution’s ability to maintain an audit trail for a predefined period of time, making it impossible to delete the log before the retention period expires.
6. Maintain an Information Security Policy
The responsibility for this falls squarely on your IT department and management team to create, define and enforce an information security policy throughout the organization. The policy should address all relevant rules and regulations defined by regulatory bodies who may have an interest in your activities, and your users should be fully aware of the obligations as well as penalties for non-compliance.