Project roadmaps get you there

This article illustrates how correct project engineering documentation deliverables help to eliminate scope changes during concept development and design, and minimize analyzer system lifetime costs.

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  • Procurement/purchasing specification
  • Documentation approval deliverables during system construction
  • Documentation deliverables with system delivery
  • Documentation as-built deliverables after system startup and commissioning
  • Determine suitability of supplier safety record and credit rating
  • FAT schedule, plan and personnel
  • FAT punch list and agreed method, personnel, schedule and documentation for resolution
  • SAT schedule, plan and personnel
  • SAT punch list and agreed method, personnel, schedule and documentation for resolution
  • Startup and commissioning assistance
  • Order tagged items and accessories in order of expected delivery schedules

Many of the documents and their contents are, or should be, routine for capital projects, including control systems in general. But they are included in this list with the analyzer-specific documents so that we do not lose sight that, though analyzer system are highly specialized measuring instruments, they are nonetheless part of control systems technology.

Table III below with the construction documentation is actually a continuation of the detailed engineering documentation and includes nearly all of the latter. The additions are to address construction safety and to prevent us from overlooking or assuming too much about bulk materials/non-spec items while being so heavily involved with the spec items and their procurement.


Document Name or Information Information Needed
Construction scope and specification Ensure that general contractor/builder has complete information to perform work
Pre-construction safety review and plan Agree on safety expectations, safety training, safety permitting, safeety issue resolution
Self-contained breathing apparatus required Personnel safety
Division of work Identify work appropriate for general contractor, owner-client specialists and supplier technicians
Dismantling, decontamination, demotion, disposal required Construction pre-work to compress construction schedule
Repair, relocation, remediation required Reuse existing equipment
Pre-work construction (eg. conduit, wiring, piping) Compress construction schedule and anticipate potential problems otherwise overlooked
Temporary shutdowns required for construction completion Minimize client operations costs and inconvenience
Analyzer house and/or analyzer system weight and size Develop safe and technically feasible lift plan
Lift required near lethal-service piping Develop safe lift plan
Other activities in construction area Benefit from construction project synergies or avoid construction schedule conflicts
Identify construction crafts required Efficient personel planning and determine how many craftsmen can safely work simultaneously
Determine hardware deliverables storage location and time of deliverables Material tracking and control from supplier to field installation
Bill of material of bulk commodities Facilitattes pre-work and minimize delays during final construction and startup


Bulk commodities are instrument tubing, mounting hardware, conduit, wiring, fiber-optic cable, junction boxes, terminal strips, and so on. Piping and valves may or may not be spec items or bulk commodities, depending on their chemical service. When construction presents a safety issue, it must simultaneously be addressed as a cost issue. For example, a “simple” lift over lethal service piping or a hot tap to create an analyzer sample point create challenges that are more safely and economically addressed in earlier project stages. The lift is generally forbidden by operations safety procedures and could add significantly to the cost of construction logistics; hot taps are generally straightforward, but nonetheless require following a detailed procedure that costs money and time.

At this point, we must note that the terms “scope” and “narrative” were used frequently in the previous discussion and in the corresponding tables. The analyzer systems project engineering team must be clear that each of these scopes and narratives include much of the same information, but in different forms and levels of detail for different audiences. The initial scope for concept development will often take on an “executive summary” tone to let decision-makers know what needs to be done, why and how it will affect operations and budgets.

The scope that is developed during detailed engineering is much more detailed to give the engineering team highly specific technical details of what to purchase and what documents need to be developed, and to work out potential technical conflicts. The construction-stage scope is written for project execution. I like to write construction scopes as if the field construction supervisor plans to unstaple the pages and give each section to the respective construction crafts to install their respective spec items and bulk commodities. Naturally, this is not what happens, but this idea helps focus on construction’s mission to safely and efficiently put together materials that benefit the production owner/client.

Table IV below is deceptively terse because I want to restrict this discussion to documentation rather than to go too deeply into maintenance operations, an apt subject for another article. Therefore, project documentation can best address ongoing analyzer systems operations and maintenance by ensuring that at the end of capital construction, the project has an obligation to supply the analyzer system maintenance group with the most complete documentation possible for its 10-20 year experience with the analyzer system.

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