Fig. 13: Results of the surge detection in compression system: mass flow input
Fig. 14: Results of the surge detection in compression system with
controlled surge: mass flow input
Figure 15 shows the response of the compression system for the pressure rises and the associate residual. We remark a value that the residuals consistently exceed during the surge operation. Figure 16 shows the response of the compression system to the pressure rises and the associate residual. In this case, the behavior of our compression system is considered nominal (without surge). There is no a value for the residuals. These signals are exactly zero.
Fig. 15: Results of the surge detection in compression system: Output gas pressure
Fig. 16: Results of the surge detection in compression system with controlled
surge: Output gas pressure
This paper described the implementation of a novel approach in gas compression system pipeline supervision using a SCADA system and substation controllers of the centrifugal compressor. Surge can be successfully detected and isolated, even though only a limited amount of the input/output data is available. The integration of advanced pipeline applications into the SCADA system in gas compression system supervisory guarantees safe operation of gas transportation. Other safety-improving features include the distribution of gas flow, SCADA system redundancy, dynamic line in SCADA displays according to pipeline content, and automation of compression stations with fault-tolerant surge protection. SCADA systems have been implemented using proprietary equipment, already including the effects of uncertainties that are based only on the input-output data in the tested gas compression system, but in this application we have described a way of implementing such systems over a distributed control system network and taking full advantage of generic, general purpose equipment. In addition, the results of the examined example demonstrate the quality of performance, and it was found that the system exhibits better performance responsiveness than the conventional system while maintaining the same high level of reliability.
Dr. Ahmed Hafaifa is associate professor in the Department of Technology Science in the University of Djelfa, Algeria
Attia Daoudi is associate Professor (MAA) at Djelfa University. He received his magister diploma in electrical and control engineering from the University of Blida, Algeria.
Mouloud Guemana is an associate professor at the University of Boumerdès, Algeria. His research interests include optimization of a measuring equipment of flow in natural gas, maintenance and reliability systems.
. S.A. Avlonitis, M. Pappas, K. Moutesidis, D. Avlonitis, K. Kouroumbas, N. Vlachakis, "PC-based SCADA Systems and Additional Safety Measures for Small Desalination Plants." Desalination, Elsevier (2004), vol. 165, no. 15, pp. 165-176.
. Chi Ki Sun, Varanon Uraikul, Christine W. Chan, Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul, "An Integrated Expert System/Operations Research Approach for the Optimization of Natural Gas Pipeline Operations." Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Elsevier (2000), vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 465-475.
. Gordon Clarke and Deon Reynders, Practical Modern Scada Protocols: Dnp3, 60870.5 and Related Systems. Newnes (2004), Book.
. J.T. Gravdahl, O. Egeland and S.O. Vatland, "Drive Torque Actuation in Active Surge Control of Centrifugal Compressors," Automatica, vol. 38, issue no. 11, 2002, pp. 1881-1893.
. A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad and K. Laroussi, "A Numerical Structural Approach to Surge Detection and Isolation in Compression Systems Using Fuzzy Logic Controller." International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, (IJCAS), Springer (2011), vol. 09, no. 01.
. A. Hafaifa, K. Laroussi and F. Laaouad, "Robust Fuzzy Fault Detection and Isolation Approach Applied to the Surge in Centrifugal Compressor Modeling and Control." Fuzzy Information and Engineering, Springer (2010), vol. 02 no. 01, pp. 49-73.
. A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad and K. Laroussi, "Fuzzy Approach Applied in Fault Detection and Isolation to the Compression System Control." Studies in Informatics and Control (SIC), (2010), vol. 19, no. 01, pp. 17-26.
. A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad and K. Laroussi, "Fuzzy Logic Approach Applied to the Surge Detection and Isolation in Centrifugal Compressor. Automatic Control and Computer Sciences, Springer (2010), vol. 44, no. 01, pp. pp. 53–59.
. A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad and M. Guemana, "A New Engineering Method for Fuzzy Reliability Analysis of Surge Control in Centrifugal Compressor." American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, (2009), vol. 2 no. 4, pp. 676-682.
. A. Hafaifa, F. Laaouad and K. Laroussi, "Fuzzy Modelling and Control for Detection and Isolation of Surge in Industrial Centrifugal Compressors." Automatic Control Journal (2009), vol. 19, no. 01, pp. 19-26.
. L. Krutz Ronald, Securing SCADA Systems. Lavoisier (2005), Book.
. Marko Gerbec, "A Reliability Analysis of a Natural-Gas Pressure-Regulating Installation." Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Elsevier (2010), vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 1154-1163.
. P.A.S. Ralston, J.H. Graham, J.L. Hieb, "Cybersecurity Risk Assessment for SCADA and DCS Networks." ISA Transactions, Elsevier (2007), vol. 46, no. 0 4, pp. 583-594.
. David J. Smith, "Reliability of Software-Based Fire and Gas Detection Control Systems." Reliability Engineering, Elsevier (1985), vol. 12, no. 03, pp. 161-173.
. A. Boye Stuart, Scada: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. ISA (2009), Book.
. M. Scarrone, N. Piccinini, C. Massobrio, "A Reliability Data Bank for the Natural Gas Distribution Industry." Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Elsevier (1989), vol. 02, no. 04, pp. 235-239.
. W. J. Turner, P. S-J. Kwon, P. A. Maguire, "Evaluation of a Gas Pipeline Simulation Program." Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Elsevier (1991), vol. 15, no. 0 7, pp. 1-14.
. Vinay M. Igure, Sean A. Laughter, Ronald D. Williams, "Security Issues in SCADA Networks." Computers & Security, Elsevier (2006), vol. 25, no. 07, pp. 498-506.
. Zafer Aydogmus, "Implementation of a Fuzzy-Based Level Control Using SCADA." Expert Systems with Applications, Elsevier (2009), vol. 36, no. 03, pp. 6593-6597.
. F. K. Moore, and E.M. Greitzer, "A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems. Part I: Development of Equations," ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 1986, vol. 108, issue no. 01, 1986, pp. 68-76.
. Zhao Yang, Zhuang Xiong, Min Shao, "A New Method of Leak Location for the Natural Gas Pipeline Based on Wavelet Analysis." Energy, Elsevier (2010), vol. 35, no. 09, pp. 3814-3820.