Optofluidics is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology that combines optics and fluidics. It extends to both the realization of optical effects and components and the analysis of fluids in motion. Fluids comprise liquids and gases, but also bulk solid materials that flow through pipelines and their fittings.
This technology furnishes diagnostic and analytical methods in which certain characteristics, constituents or parameters of fluids in motion such as density, volume, colour, or content of noxious substances are detected and evaluated. For this purpose, the fluid is charged with information that can be subsequently read by optical components. The fluid thus becomes a medium that carries in itself the code for optical analysis. Devices such as cameras and sensors visualize the diagnosis in real time, without the process flow having to be interrupted. In future, optofluidic analysis methods could replace time-consuming sampling and stabilize process flow, while reducing the number of components required and maintenance costs.07/12/2011
AutoSave increases productivity and reduces downtime and safety risks for Nestle Purina.
As automation devices have grown more complex and have incorporated more plant data in their operation, there is an increased need for programming changes to continue smooth operation or improve performance. In environments requiring frequent changes, it is not uncommon for code to be lost or changes overwritten resulting in increased downtime and decreased productivity.12/09/2008
Temperature is certainly among the most commonly measured parameters in industry, science, and academia. Recently, the growth of wireless instrumentation technology, along with some clever innovations, has provided new ways to apply temperature measurement sensors combined with personal computers to collect, tabulate, and analyze the data obtained. For complex, multi-sensor applications, wireless devices provide a means to eliminate the nuisance of running multiple leads over long distances through harnesses or conduit to a control room, instrument panel, or equipment rack, while keeping track of which leads are which. For simpler one or two sensor applications, it means installing the wireless sensor, setting up the receiver, and being done. There are now so many wireless transmitting and receiving devices available for temperature measurement that nearly any application can benefit from their use. In any case, it is certainly worth a closer look. As a bonus, most of the devices discussed below also work with humidity and barometric pressure sensors.11/21/2008
OPC UA (Unified Architecture) represents the OPC Foundations most recent set of specifications for Process Control and Automation system interconnectivity. This paper explains OPC UA from the perspective of the organization that will benefit from the connectivity, in other words: the End User.
The challenge for companies implementing OPC UA is to ensure their data is secure from unauthorized access.
This whitepaper discusses the following:
- OPC Overview
- OPC communication with DCOM
- OPC via Web Services
- Object Oriented Data Model
- Improving Existing OPC Specifications
- Backwards Compatibility and Tunneling
- OPC at the Enterprise level
The white paper reviews the history and development path of Foundation SIF technology, and provides insights into topics such as: SIF product registration, conformance to international standards, diagnostics functions and benefits, and future challenges. It also outlines key advantages of Foundation SIF at the safety system layer.11/21/2008
The pH value is the most frequently used process variable in analysis. The pH value is of outstanding importance in water and environmental analysis and in almost all sectors of industry. Whether the cheese in a dairy is of the right quality, the water in a drinking water supply causes corrosion damage, or the precipitation in a treatment plant for waste water from an electroplating process occurs at the optimal point, all depend on such parameters as the pH value.10/30/2008
Conductivity measurement is an easily performed measurement technique for determining and monitoring the total salt concentration in water. It is encountered in many areas of industrial and environmental analysis. Whether it concerns cleaning the filling lines in a dairy, or protection of the cooling water system in a power station, the correct procedures always depend on the conductivity value.10/30/2008
As a manufacturer of measuring systems (transmitter/controllers and sensors) for resistance/conductivity and pH measurement, we are confronted almost every day with the uncertainty prevailing among customers, end users and project planners when it comes to the proper measurement techniques and equipment for high-purity water.
This booklet provides assistance and information in this field. It is intended to give you a generally understandable background and explanation of the fundamental terminology used in high-purity water measurement, and thus contribute to demystifying the subject. Furthermore, it also presents the procedure that is generally valid for calibrating and testing a high-purity water measuring system, and is currently still firmly based on the American regulations (USP/ASTM).10/30/2008
Together with the pH value, the redox voltage is one of the most frequent process variables in industrial and municipal effluent plants, as well as in installations for monitoring drinking water and bathing (swimming pool) water.10/30/2008
For reasons of hygiene, drinking water, or any other water that people come into direct or indirect contact with, often has to be treated with compounds that destroy any micro-organisms contained in it. Chlorine, chlorine compounds or ozone are very often used as disinfectants. In this sensitive area, a high level of safety for the consumer is an absolute requirement, and for this reason, systems are used for fully automatic monitoring, control and recording of the disinfectant concentration.
Amperometric sensors provide the best means of monitoring the disinfectant concentration. This technical publication will present the electrochemical fundamentals and the application technology of such sensors in an easily understood form, for the interested reader.10/30/2008
The methods of determination of hydrogen peroxide and PAA are not continuous measurements methods, but methods whereby the concentration is measured for samples taken at certain times.
These analytical methods are laboratory procedures requiring a considerable outlay in personnel and time.
In order to regulate the concentration of a disinfectant, it is advantageous if a electrical signal is available that is continuous and proportional to the concentration of disinfectant. This signal can then be used as the input signal for controlling a disinfectant metering system, i.e. the concentration can be completely automatically regulated.
A membrane-covered amperometric measuring cell can be used for monitoring the peracetic acid concentration and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide.10/30/2008
Measurement of the concentration of ammonia in aqueous solutions is a requirement in many application areas, such as for coolant monitoring and laboratory measurement. A fast and simple way of measuring ammonia can be achieved by using a membranecovered, gas-sensitive sensor that operates on a potentiometric principle.
But for successful measurement, several factors must be observed when handling and using of ammonia sensors. This brochure is intended to provide practical help for the users in these matters. A special emphasis is placed on the two application situations mentioned above.
Furthermore, the construction and mode of operation of the sensor is also briefly described.10/30/2008
The paper provides an in depth tutorial of how to help secure networks in production plants. Its recommendations are based on latest platform technology, current standards and WinCC and PCS 7 product features. It offers comprehensive coverage of security concepts and up-to-date detail documents that explore specific solutions and recommended configuration based on specific products or topics.10/27/2008
The "WinCC Security Concept" documentation contains recommended and mandatory procedures for planning and building secure, networked WinCC automation solutions with connected Web clients, SIMATIC IT applications and office networks based on customer specifications. This documentation serves as both a reference and a guide for network administrators working in the following areas:
- Configuration of WinCC
- Commissioning and servicing of WinCC
- Management of company networks
It is intended to facilitate cooperation.10/20/2008
Why is Lack of Interoperability in Wireless a Concern in Industrial Applications?
While the available potential for wireless deployment in factory automation is high, the adoption of wireless is plagued by various concerns surrounding the wireless technology, one of which is lack of interoperability. In the recent past, interoperability was not as major concern as it is currently. People predominantly used to build their own systems or purchased them from a single supplier. Increasing plant automation has spurred the demand for wireless devices and systems for numerous applications like monitoring, alarm and telemetry with a large number of suppliers offering these systems or solutions. They are often customized on proprietary protocols but not based on a common standard or architecture. As a result, these devices offered from multiple suppliers are not often compatible with one another. So even though the options have increased, the end users have become more concerned about the compatibility of the devices.10/08/2008
Analysis of the Mesh Topology in ISA100.11a D2.
Before a network can be used it must be formed. As part of this formation, devices must be provisioned with a network ID and a join key. The network ID is used to associate a device with a network and the join key is used to protect the device as well as the network during the join operation. Provisioning devices can be done by the manufacturer, in the maintenance shop, or in the field. In the D2 draft neither the requirements for nor the actual physical interface for provisioning has been specified.10/07/2008
The ISA100.11a D2 draft is a major step forward over D1. The D2 document is the first draft that attempts to be a full specification of the network and application protocols for process monitoring and control devices. However, it is incomplete.
The editors have done a substantial amount of work in generating the newest version of the specification. A large number of comments were reviewed, accepted, accepted in principal or otherwise incorporated into the document. In addition, new technical material was developed to fill in the technical omissions that existed in the old document. As a result, the D2 draft requires a thorough review.
In reviewing the document the first goal is to determine if the technical details meet the overall goals stablished for the standard. This paper considers the primary goal of a standard: the interoperability and interchangeability of products (Section 6.2). The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with objective information about the draft to enable them to determine if these goals are met and to assist them in providing comments to the ISA100 committee.09/25/2008
The white paper describes the hardware and software elements of a video process monitoring system, how it uses the plants industrial network to transmit video to the control system and how the video images appear on HMI screens.09/10/2008
Control editor Walt Boyes speaks to the TÜV Safety Symposium in Cologne. Read a transcript of his speech, "Warum Ist Sicherheit So Schwer?/Why Is Safety so HARD?09/02/2008
Business drivers to improve performance, such as supply chain performance and operational effectiveness, require that integration of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and shop-floor systems is considered. Many manufacturing companies have implemented the SAP R/3 ERP system, supporting core business processes including financials, sales, distribution and so on. The manufacturing processes may be controlled by a combination of automatic control equipment and human operators. SAP R/3 supports production planning functionality in its PP (standard production planning) module and sub-modules PP-PI (production planning for the process industries), PP-REP (repetitive manufacturing) and PP-Kanban. These modules support the exchange of data with external systems. However, the technology issues associated with such data exchange are part of a broader set of challenges that an integration project must address if the intended business benefits are to be obtained. This paper examines a business-driven approach to integration and explores recent project experience integrating shop-floor systems with the PP and PP-PI modules.08/28/2008