Alarm and event analysis has long been used for improving process operation. However since alarms are usually generated and displayed based on physical equipment, alarm analysis has been difficult to perform on a batch basis.
In this paper, we focus on the interrelation of alarm/message notification and operator reaction in a batch process and analyze them systematically according to S88.01 Models and Terminology. Balance patterns of alarm/message notification and operator reactions are visually analyzed. Batch based analysis is done by grouping and filtering alarm and event data by master recipe, procedural hierarchy, and batch unit. This makes it easy to find and improve spurious alarms and inefficient operator habits.
In a brief experience in a pharmaceutical plant, spurious alarms have been reduced by approximately 30% and smoother operation procedures have been implemented.
Yoshitaka Yuki, Manager, Yokogawa Corporation of America; Jim Parks, Instrument Engineer, Lonza Inc.
Personnel safety in heavy industries such as metals, mining and mineral processing is of paramount priority. This paper discusses the value proposition of having Citect possess the ability to deliver in real time, information about personnel that are present at or around the process that is currently being viewed on screen. Although the main driver is around safety, there are also potential benefits from a maintenance and support perspective.
How do we choose the correct level of automation for a specific process area within the production facility? How does that facility drive a migration of its control systems to meet increasing business requirements while taking into account very real constraints around skills levels, existing equipment configuration and materials availability?
These are very real questions confronting all of us today irrespective of how basic or advanced our manufacturing facilities are. This paper will present the concept of simple maturity models with regard to manufacturing control systems. It will illustrate the use of the concept through the typical stages of brewing control system complexity found within a brewing process area from the completely manual to the fully automated configurations. It will further explore the typical business drivers which would require the move from one level to the next as well as the impacted factors to be addressed when driving a migration of the control system. Relevant international standards like S95 and S88 will also be put into context as helpful models and terminology in support of the business needs of SABMiller.
Business drivers to improve performance, such as supply chain performance and operational effectiveness, require that integration of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and shop-floor systems is considered. Many manufacturing companies have implemented the SAP R/3 ERP system, supporting core business processes including financials, sales, distribution and so on. The manufacturing processes may be controlled by a combination of automatic control equipment and human operators.
SAP R/3 supports production planning functionality in its PP (standard production planning) module and sub-modules PP-PI (production planning for the process industries), PP-REP (repetitive manufacturing) and PP-Kanban. These modules support the exchange of data with external systems. However, the technology issues associated with such data exchange are part of a broader set of challenges that an integration project must address if the intended business benefits are to be obtained.
This paper examines a business-driven approach to integration and explores recent project experience integrating shop-floor systems with the PP and PP-PI modules.
Willem Dekkers, Senior Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; David Faustino, Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; Peter Hopkinson, Principal Consultant, ERP & Extended Services
The suppressor to protect a specific point upon an electrical distribution system must be selected accordingly to its physical location.
The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these overvoltages are generated by lightning activity or are induced upon the AC power lines by utility grid switching, power factor correction actions, power cycling of inductive loads, or from other sources. A quality surge suppressor must limit transient overvoltages to values that do not surpass the AC sine wave peak by more than 30% as it initially absorbs intense amounts of transient energy. The suppressor must immediately respond to transients before they reach their uppermost voltage values. Suppressor performance should not deviate or degrade with use when called upon to divert extreme levels of transient current.
Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether it's from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Today's PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics. With the latest PLC technology, almost anything that can be accomplished next to the machine can be accomplished wherever there is an Internet connection.
This whitepaper talks about how today Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform basic task and so much more.
As Ethernet continues to gain momentum in the industrial automation market, it's changing the way control engineers utilize their fieldbus systems. In the past, fieldbus networks were considered one-dimensional - they performed one task and did it very well - transferring process data between networked devices in a fast and deterministic manner. Usually these devices were on a local segment, isolated from higher-level networks. Nowadays, Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform this basic task and so much more. With industrial protocols like Modbus/TCP, EtherNet/IP, and PROFInet process data is sent over standard, off-the-shelf Ethernet hardware. No longer are users forced to buy proprietary fieldbus components from a handful of vendors.
Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design.
This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.
The S88.01 rule is today a well accepted standard all over the world: all qualified engineers involved in the design of a batch control system are getting familiar with the terminology and models therein described. The focus is now on the implementation. As a matter of fact, the S88.01 standard is not a prescriptive guideline. This means that engineers must define, for each project, which documents are to be produced, by whom and with which formalisms.
The operations and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals is a complex process combining the capabilities of multiple systems that extend the boundaries of batch processing. The Manufacturing Execution System (MES) receives information from the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and creates the necessary production orders, maintains material tracking/genealogy and coordinates key manual activities. The automated batch control system sequences the phases, controls the devices and captures the necessary history. These systems come together in the operation of Biopharmaceutical production plants, which require a very specific architecture that leverages standard batch products that are tightly integrated with MES capabilities. This is driven by the upstream and downstream processing specifications of such plants, the detailed compliance requirements and the benefits achieved in maximizing automated functionality. This paper explores the unique requirements of batch manufacturing in the biopharmaceutical environment.
Changing market conditions are forcing batch-manufacturing facilities to modify the way they conduct business. The demand for software and hardware vendors to provide a higher level of batch automation is increasing. This demand is being fueled by a shortage of knowledge-workers coupled with the demand for flexible manufacturing environments. Industry standards for software and batch-control are emerging rapidly. These standards are helping to improve the interconnectivity of many products.
E-commerce will be the area for growth during this decade. Many companies are already buying and selling products through business-to-business portals on the Internet. The ability for a company to respond to ever changing manufacturing demands will determine their success or failure in the future.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss these business trends along with the impact of new standards on the batch industry. The paper describes several examples of companies that have been able to leverage infrastructure investments while successfully applying these emerging standards.
Tom Hosea, Batch Applications Specialist, OSI Software Inc.
One of the difficulties of managing projects that involve several organizations is that the group has no pre-established procedures for handling actions that cross organizational boundaries. Read this white paper to learn tips that can resolve cross organizational boundaries.
Tom Clark Project Success Incorporated, www.projectsuccess.com
The upgrade of an existing operational plant to a new control system can be full of uncertainties, especially in the areas of operability, downtime, and benefit. Cabot Corporation recently upgraded their Treated Silica operations in Tuscola, Illinois to Batch software, new PLC processors, and an upgrade of the existing HMI's to the latest version of the vendors software. The previous system was using older PLC's with HMIs in a semi-automatic configuration. The system relied heavily on the operators to make critical batch decisions and mechanical equipment adjustments. Cabot utilized the services of a batch software provider/developer, who developed the new system using S88 standards. The system started up with minimal downtime and has delivered as promised.
The Units have seen as much as 30% increased throughput, production record keeping has become more accurate, and the product has become more consistent. These gains were achieved by the automation of a great majority of the operators former manual tasks, which included the use of batching technology and the addition of more automation equipment in the field. Additionally, to speed production and fulfill Cabot's production needs for greater throughput, recipe entry onto the batch list is now handled using specialized campaign software.
Tom Branch, Senior Project Engineer, Application Systems Engineering, Rockwell Automation; Todd Ray, Senior Process Engineer, Cabot Corporation
Traditional process models typically view a transfer line between Units either as a physical extension of the batching vessel or as a shared equipment module. The valves in the transfer line are then convenient places to establish the boundary of the upstream or downstream Unit.
The benefits of applying the S88.01 standard have been well proven in the industry, although most users have only scratched the surface on achieving these benefits. Some of this dilemma can be attributed to poor application of the standard by users; much can be traced to deficiencies in current tools that are available to the user. The S88.01 batch control standard has been around for five years. Ample time has been available to allow the appropriate tools to be developed that will allow users to take full advantage of the S88.01 standard. Most tools still do not provide enough needed features and flexibility. This paper will discuss ways of improving user application of the S88.01 standard and some of the deficiencies of currently available tools.
Thomas G. Fisher, Operations Technology Manager, The Lubrizol Corporation