Temperature is certainly among the most commonly measured parameters in industry, science, and academia. Recently, the growth of wireless instrumentation technology, along with some clever innovations, has provided new ways to apply temperature measurement sensors combined with personal computers to collect, tabulate, and analyze the data obtained. For complex, multi-sensor applications, wireless devices provide a means to eliminate the nuisance of running multiple leads over long distances through harnesses or conduit to a control room, instrument panel, or equipment rack, while keeping track of which leads are which. For simpler one or two sensor applications, it means installing the wireless sensor, setting up the receiver, and being done.
There are now so many wireless transmitting and receiving devices available for temperature measurement that nearly any application can benefit from their use. In any case, it is certainly worth a closer look. As a bonus, most of the devices discussed below also work with humidity and barometric pressure sensors.
Why is Lack of Interoperability in Wireless a Concern in Industrial Applications?
While the available potential for wireless deployment in factory automation is high, the adoption of wireless is plagued by various concerns surrounding the wireless technology, one of which is lack of interoperability. In the recent past, interoperability was not as major concern as it is currently. People predominantly used to build their own systems or purchased them from a single supplier. Increasing plant automation has spurred the demand for wireless devices and systems for numerous applications like monitoring, alarm and telemetry with a large number of suppliers offering these systems or solutions. They are often customized on proprietary protocols but not based on a common standard or architecture. As a result, these devices offered from multiple suppliers are not often compatible with one another. So even though the options have increased, the end users have become more concerned about the compatibility of the devices.
This paper provides background on, and an overview of, the soon to be released WBF XML batch and enterprise-control system schemas. The schemas consist of two sets, one is intended to provide for the exchange of batch data and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 88 standard. The second is intended to serve as a basis for exchanging data between enterprise and control systems and is based upon the ANSI/ISA 95 standard. The organization of each set is described along with examples on how they can be used.
The white paper describes the hardware and software elements of a video process monitoring system, how it uses the plants industrial network to transmit video to the control system and how the video images appear on HMI screens.
The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) was released by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1998 and has experienced rapid worldwide acceptance. When the SP88 committee started work on the S88.02 exchange tables XML technology was not available for consideration and relational database table technology was used as a basis for batch data exchange. As applications come to market based on S88.02 it is important to examine the newer XML technology for suitability for batch data exchange.
This paper provides a brief overview of XML and discusses how it can be used for batch data exchange. As an example an application that converts a control system's proprietary master recipes to and from XML is discussed. Lessons learned about the use of XML versus relational database technology are presented as well as possibilities for future uses of XML with batch control.
David Emerson, Sr. System Architect, Yokogawa Corporation of America
This application note discusses considerations when selecting lighting equipment and demonstrates how to utilize the Direct Drive lighting controller feature on the NI 17xx Smart Camera with LabVIEW or Vision Builder for Automated Inspection.
Have you ever thought of using batch sequencing and S88 recipe management techniques to control a continuous process? This paper will discuss the great similarities and subtle differences found in such applications. At Procter & Gamble we have successfully created several such hybrid process control applications. The results of these adventures greatly exceeded expectations. These systems benefited from an adaptation of the modular approach described in the S88.00.01 standard with some significant differences in the states of their Equipment Modules and Phases. The necessary modifications will be presented in detail.
Genentech Inc.s bulk manufacturing facility in Vacaville, CA has been in production for the past two years. Application of S88 design concepts has provided the needed flexibility for multi-product manufacturing. Furthermore, the DCS has provided the integrated manufacturing environment necessary to trace and track the multitude of process activities required for the production of a single batch.
To meet increasing manufacturing capacity requirements, there is an effort underway to maximize yield and plant throughput. There is an increasing recognition that these goals may be realized by decreasing the time for postproduction analysis of batch production data and the generation of a Batch Assay History Report prior to its market release. Yields may be maximized by real time preemption of deviations in batch quality while the batch is in production. Such time demanding requirements are met by using the Web to deploy raw data and processed information to fulfill users data needs; when, where and how they need it. This paper discusses benefits realized through the use of Web technologies for supervisory batch control, batch production data analysis and batch report generation.
Chinmoy Roy, Manager- Automation Engineering, Genentech Inc.; Leonard Johnson, DCS System Administrator, Genentech Inc.
The suppressor to protect a specific point upon an electrical distribution system must be selected accordingly to its physical location.
The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these overvoltages are generated by lightning activity or are induced upon the AC power lines by utility grid switching, power factor correction actions, power cycling of inductive loads, or from other sources. A quality surge suppressor must limit transient overvoltages to values that do not surpass the AC sine wave peak by more than 30% as it initially absorbs intense amounts of transient energy. The suppressor must immediately respond to transients before they reach their uppermost voltage values. Suppressor performance should not deviate or degrade with use when called upon to divert extreme levels of transient current.
Traditional process models typically view a transfer line between Units either as a physical extension of the batching vessel or as a shared equipment module. The valves in the transfer line are then convenient places to establish the boundary of the upstream or downstream Unit.
From which supplier ingredient lots did we compose this batch? Which batches did this pallet feed? Which batches ran after it? Whats the effect of this badly performing unit on previous operations? Whats the correlation between ?
These are not easy questions, too often left without an answer. In many cases we have to rely on a combination of the operators memory, some paper log sheets and a variety of electronic data sources.
With the introduction of the ISA S88.01 standard in 1995 and the work of the SP95 committee, process industries finally receives a structured framework that extends its advantages beyond the pure process control aspects. By applying the standard, we have a basis for building in traceability as an intrinsic function of the production control system.
We will focus on topics like material flow control, the process inventory, integrating quality control and non-conformity checking in the batch recipe and building product genealogy. During the presentation we will explain the methodology behind this and how leading enterprises have already successfully applied it.
Ing. Geert Vanhove, Product Manager proCX, Compex N.V.
For a new built multi purpose batch plant the DCS with batch control was linked to the ERP-system of the company to ensure consistent and up-to-date data in all systems.
As part of the engineering project of the plant the part process control using a standard DCS with the manufacturers batch extension was configured to meet the needs resulting from the task to exchange data and information with the company-wide used ERP-system. Nevertheless a direct link between DCS and ERP-system could not be established due to misfit of data models. Therefore a Middleware was configured and programmed. The Middleware takes relevant material information from the ERP-system and sends it to the batch control system, takes master recipes from the batch control system and creates planning recipes within the ERP-system, takes orders from the ERP and generates control recipes within the batch control system, and reads current data from the DCS about process status and material consumption and production and creates messages for the ERP.
The Middleware translates between DCS and ERP generating fast and reliable information-update in all systems and comprehensive documentation of the production process with low personnel efforts.
Henkel Surface Technologies has significantly increased plant throughput and capacity utilization - resulting in substantial savings in terms of infrastructure investment and cost per pound produced. The program, TIP (throughput improvement program), is an employee-driven integrated cost management effort that has had corporate-wide impact in operations, finance and marketing/sales.
In manufacturing operations, the systemized daily report of operations (DRO) provides floor communications between employees and management to drive improvement. Captured metrics include attainment to schedule, attainment to standard, operator noted opportunities, and others. Reporting from the DRO identifies and prioritizes improvement opportunities.
In finance, the captured information forms the foundation for benchmark reporting that tracks improvements by trending selected process metrics. This in turn is used to develop detail product-byproduct costs for more than 6,000 individual sku's. Database reporting allows the information to be analyzed in a variety of formats with an emphasis on product complexity and its impact on operations. The cost information is then communicated corporate-wide through the product cost and financial reporting systems.
In marketing and sales, cost information, accessed through margin reports and profit and loss statements impacts business area decisions, while also influencing product rationalization decisions. Rationalization decisions, formerly primarily volume-based, now incorporate complexity factors that directly impact operations.
Rick Luedecke, Mfg Development Mgr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Doug Sanders, Mfg Development Spvsr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Dean D. Baker,
Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design.
This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.
All of the components, and the zones in which they reside, that comprise the scope and magnitude of batch manufacturing have always been a challenge to fully comprehend at a single instant. When attempting to automate these components one must understand the unique requirements of the zone in which the component resides, as well as the touch points and interactions between the different S88.01 models. The approaches used to modularize and automate these touch points and interactions have a great impact upon the usability of the automation. The concepts of Unit Modes, Equipment Module and Phase residency are key to a usable automated batch manufacturing application. This paper explores the zones of batch manufacturing and an approach to automate the touch points and interactions of the S88.01 models that provides a very usable application.
David A. Chappell, Technology Leader, Procter & Gamble Company