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  • Raising Automation to the Business Level

    Walt Boyes Answers the Following Questions: How Are Automation Professionals Going to Survive and Prosper in a Changing World, and how Will They Raise Automation to the Business Level?

    Walt Boyes
  • Protecting Process Control Systems and Networks From Cyber Attack

    Business information systems and process automation systems that support the manufacturing enterprise have evolved from individual isolated applications utilizing proprietary operating systems and networks, to interconnected systems and applications employing “open” architectures and standard protocols. These manufacturing computer systems are now being integrated into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems through site and corporate communication networks.

    Lawrence Falkenau, P.E., WBF
  • Project Management of Batch Control Projects: How to avoid the Pitfalls

    Batch control projects have tended to be software intensive and often overrun substantially. In most cases this is due to a lack of foresight and planning in the early stages. The “S88 Era” has tried to alleviate this situation by providing a structured methodology – but again the flexibility of current control systems and a lack of planning can produce the same effect as having no structure at all. This paper aims to highlight some potential problems and pitfalls and how they may be contained without adversely affecting the outcome of the project.

    Dr. Maurice J. Wilkins, Director of Process Automation and Control Systems, Millennium Specialty Chemicals
  • Project Management of Batch Control Projects: How to avoid the Pitfalls

    Batch control projects have tended to be software intensive and often overrun substantially. In most cases this is due to a lack of foresight and planning in the early stages. The “S88 Era” has tried to alleviate this situation by providing a structured methodology – but again the flexibility of current control systems and a lack of planning can produce the same effect as having no structure at all. This paper aims to highlight some potential problems and pitfalls and how they may be contained without adversely affecting the outcome of the project.

    Dr. Maurice J. Wilkins, Managing Director, Breakthrough Process Consulting
  • Production Performance Ratings

    Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used in batch processing industries as measurements of production performance. Their use is one element in the current trend of real-time performance management. A single KPI used as the primary measurement of production can cause other dimensions of production performance lose importance. When multiple KPIs are used to measure a batch’s production performance it can be difficult to reconcile differences between them for individual batches or for groups of batches. KPIs based upon meeting a target, or specification, measure absolute performance yet do not provide relative information regarding how a batch performed against its peers. The peer comparisons are important for monitoring variability of production performance, which is a critical factor in documenting ROI.

    David Emerson, WBF
  • Product Life Cycle Management and the General Recipe a Case Study

    To adapt to today's shifting market and customer requirements, an enterprise must be increasingly agile to redefine its products. Organizational barriers introduce delays and inconsistencies in the transfer of this information. At the same time, a global enterprise needs to ensure that products are manufactured consistently, wherever they are developed or made in the supply chain . This paper presents a case study of the development and implementation of an electronic Product Lifecycle Management application to successfully address these challenges, for a premium brand food manufacturer. The business requirements are defined and mapped against the capabilities of commercial software products. To ensure that the application can evolve, as business needs change, the use of existing and emerging standards, recommendations and technologies is evaluated. The organization and project approach to involve all disciplines, redefine the product development processes and successfully introduce this new technology is described. In the conclusion a brief overview is given of the scope and uses of the application, the expected benefits are illustrated and recommendations are made to improve batch standards.

    John Delhez, Sr Product Manager, Honeywell-POMS Corp.
  • Process Modeling & Efficient Engineering

    The modelling of a Batch Process and breaking down into S88 modular components is key to an easy and cost effective control software solution. This paper looks at the issues involved with engineering a batch control system, in relation to modelling, unit acquisition and transfers of material, including the use of generic coding techniques and ‘multiplexing’ or unit relative design. There are many ways to engineer a batch application even using S88 concepts. Real case studies will be used, where two batch applications have been engineered on the same site over the last 5 years. The first placed a high emphasis on control station coding and complexity within the phase and sequences. The later case was designed to fully use the capability of the Batch Supervisor to optimise engineering and maintenance and provide the functionality required. A comparison of these two methodologies provides a good insight into the benefits and disadvantages of each, in relation to engineering, testing and on-going maintenance.

    Paul Wilson, Batch Consultant, Invensys Software Systems (Foxboro)
  • Preventing Dust Explosions

    Find out how you can prevent dust explosions for almost nothing.

    Joseph A. Kaulfersch Market Analyst, Pepperl+Fuchs Inc.
  • Predictive Control of Batch Reactors

    Continuous control of batch reactors is now feasible with Model Based Predictive Control. First Principles modeling allows the solution of difficult problems of non linear, integrative, constrained, cascaded end split range control, with no lag error on ramping set points. This has been implemented in DCS control boards and PLC,s.Diverse industrial applications are described. Linking Sequential Control and Continuous Control is made easier if both control schemes are implemented in the same generic control library.

    J. Richalet, ADERSA; Eric Vitté, Schneider Electric
  • Personnel Tracking in Citect

    Personnel safety in heavy industries such as metals, mining and mineral processing is of paramount priority. This paper discusses the value proposition of having Citect possess the ability to deliver in real time, information about personnel that are present at or around the process that is currently being viewed on screen. Although the main driver is around safety, there are also potential benefits from a maintenance and support perspective.

    Yong, The National Account Manager, Citect
  • Performance Comparison of Flexible Detector Designs

    The purpose of this paper is to present test results of recent measurements on a scintillating fill fluid (i.e., liquid scintillator filled) detector and a scintillating fiber bundle detector designs, and explain the observed differences in efficiency. In our measurements we observe an improvement of factor of 2.4 in light output for a fill fluid detector compared to scintillating fiber bundle detector of the same diameter and length.

    Ronan Measurements
  • OptoFluidic: Real-time Optical Analysis

    Optofluidics is a relatively new interdisciplinary technology that combines optics and fluidics. It extends to both the realization of optical effects and components and the analysis of fluids in motion. Fluids comprise liquids and gases, but also bulk solid materials that flow through pipelines and their fittings.

    This technology furnishes diagnostic and analytical methods in which certain characteristics, constituents or parameters of fluids in motion such as density, volume, colour, or content of noxious substances are detected and evaluated. For this purpose, the fluid is charged with information that can be subsequently read by optical components. The fluid thus becomes a medium that carries in itself the code for optical analysis. Devices such as cameras and sensors visualize the diagnosis in real time, without the process flow having to be interrupted. In future, optofluidic analysis methods could replace time-consuming sampling and stabilize process flow, while reducing the number of components required and maintenance costs.

  • Operations Excellence

    Our premise is that functional organizations, namely Production, Quality and Information Technology, have traditionally solved problems by rapid problem definition, solution design and implementation of automated controls or other computer systems. The new economy represents a new set of challenges to that approach. These challenges take the form of worldwide production and distribution, cost pressures, site consolidation and more stringent FDA requirements. Meeting these challenges requires a new method of problem solving in the areas of manufacturing and quality control. This will also have a significant impact on the roles and responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) organization in supporting these two organizations. This paper is based on consulting work that dealt with the overall business transformation associated with management and control of batch records while improving operating efficiency and reducing risk.

    Patrick Hurley, Principal, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young
  • OPC UA: An End-User’s Perspective

    OPC UA (Unified Architecture) represents the OPC Foundation’s most recent set of specifications for Process Control and Automation system interconnectivity. This paper explains OPC UA from the perspective of the organization that will benefit from the connectivity, in other words: the End User.

    The challenge for companies implementing OPC UA is to ensure their data is secure from unauthorized access.

    This whitepaper discusses the following:
    - OPC Overview
    - OPC communication with DCOM
    - OPC via Web Services
    - Object Oriented Data Model
    - Improving Existing OPC Specifications
    - Backwards Compatibility and Tunneling
    - OPC at the Enterprise level
    - Security

    OPC Training Institute
  • One Link at a Time: A Supply Chain Success Story for a Process Industry

    Optimizing the supply chain is a hot issue in the race for global competitiveness. Defining the perfect end-state is easy. Getting there while you have a business to run is not. To achieve dramatic and sustainable results, it is necessary to put in place a process for improvement rather than a one-time project for improvement. One DuPont business accomplished this between 1991 and 1995 by tackling one real-world problem at a time.

    Jane B. Lee, WBF
  • My Plant is Manual, Why do I need S88?

    Many manufacturers do not feel confident in designing new facilities incorporating full automation and want to retain manual control of the process. For these users, good modeling of the plant to achieve the required functionality is even more important. Most manual facilities still incorporate a degree of automation for those functions that are difficult to control manually. These functions must be accessible to the operators and easy to use in both normal and emergency situations. This paper will examine why the use of good structured design, following the principals of S88, will provide major benefits to these users. A structured analysis will identify common modules in the design and may even indicate where reuse of predefined modules is possible. This approach speeds up both the design and validation of the new facility. The user can decide the level of automation that they feel comfortable with and this may vary with the functions provided. E.g. Process operations may be performed by manually selecting equipment modules, but cleaning may be fully automatic to ensure that it is effective. In all these situations a structured model is the key to understanding the functionality of the plant.

    Keith Morris, Automation Consultant, Kvaerner E&C
  • Multiple Products in a Monoclonal Antibody S88.01 Batch Plant

    The most successful biotech companies have multiple products approved for market and must make the use of existing manufacturing capacity to produce them. Often times this requires rapid changeover from one product to the next. This paper addresses the challenges with bringing new products into an existing S88.01 facility and the challenges involved in maintaining the standard as well as implementing a change in an operating plant with a minimum of downtime. It was found that the S88 concept is enormously helpful in implementing changes within the equipment capability but that challenges arise when the equipment capability must be changed also. The recommendation is to standardize the manufacturing process and build the necessary capability into the plant upfront to avoid costly downtime during product changeover.

    Mahasti Kheradmand, John O’Connell, WBF
  • Monitoring Multi-Recipe Batch Manufacturing Performance

    Quality and consistency are key factors in determining business success. Manufacturing products that satisfy product quality and consistency specifications first time result in increased productivity and lower overall manufacturing costs. Approaches to achieving consistently high quality production and enhanced manufacturing performance include Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Six Sigma with increasing attention now being paid to Multivariate Statistical Process Control methodologies (MSPC) or perhaps better termed “Process Performance Monitoring”. In today’s process manufacturing environment, a number of issues arise which can challenge the application of MSPC based process performance monitoring technologies. For example, most applications of MSPC have tended to focus upon the manufacture of a single product, i.e. one grade, one recipe, etc. with separate models being developed to monitor individual product types. However, with process manufacturing trends being influenced by customer demands and the drive for product diversification, there has been an increase in flexible manufacturing. Thus with many companies now producing a wide variety of products, there is a real need for process models which allow a range of products, grades or recipes to be monitored using a single process representation. Three industrial case studies are presented to demonstrate the application of the multi-group performance monitoring approaches.

    Julian Morris, Elaine Martin, WBF
  • Modular Turnkey Concept for Pharmaceutical Sterile Formulation

    Sterile parental drugs are produced or formulated in GMP critical batch processes. These automated process installations are submitted to a lot of regulations applying to the pharmaceutical industry. The formulation installations have moved away from being just utilities’ extensions and have become speciality installations requiring a high degree of technical skills but also knowledge about regulations and qualification/validation strategies. As a result of this, specialised suppliers offer a turnkey approach for concept design, detailed engineering, realisation and qualification of these installations. Nowadays, there is a move towards modular skid concepts, allowing prefabrication and pre-qualification.

    Geert Roggeman, WBF
  • Modular & Concurrent Design Using Standardized Interfaces for Accelerating Design Process

    The successful execution of an accelerated project from Concept to Process Qualification within 1 year with extensive usage of multiple Vendors requires a paradigm change for the Batch and Automation part of the project. Traditionally one Automation supplier has delivered and configured the complete Batch & Control system and a number of Skid Vendors has supplied only equipment,machinery & piping. To accelerate the project execution to meet the 1 year goal requires a Modular approach, where the Design, Implementation, Construction and Validation are done concurrently and where the Validation is planned from day one and included in the design. Skid Vendors must take responsibility of the Batch & Control system as well as the mechanical part and deliver a complete package that is validated to the extend possible before installation on-site. The different Skid Vendors may use different Batch and Control system products, and thus demand a very high level of standardization, especially regarding structuring (S88) and interfacing (OPC, S95 etc.). The Batch and Control system products on the market today do enable this high level of standardization, but when it comes to things like Material tracking and local inventory, there is still a need to have oneMaster system managing this. Initiatives like BatchML & B2MML published by WBF for the S88 & S95 standards will ease the integration, but the Systems available today still have too much formatting information that needs to be included to really make the integration easy.

    Frede Vinther, Specialist in Automation, Novo Nordisk Engineering
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