Business drivers to improve performance, such as supply chain performance and operational effectiveness, require that integration of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and shop-floor systems is considered. Many manufacturing companies have implemented the SAP R/3 ERP system, supporting core business processes including financials, sales, distribution and so on. The manufacturing processes may be controlled by a combination of automatic control equipment and human operators.
SAP R/3 supports production planning functionality in its PP (standard production planning) module and sub-modules PP-PI (production planning for the process industries), PP-REP (repetitive manufacturing) and PP-Kanban. These modules support the exchange of data with external systems. However, the technology issues associated with such data exchange are part of a broader set of challenges that an integration project must address if the intended business benefits are to be obtained.
This paper examines a business-driven approach to integration and explores recent project experience integrating shop-floor systems with the PP and PP-PI modules.
Willem Dekkers, Senior Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; David Faustino, Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; Peter Hopkinson, Principal Consultant, ERP & Extended Services
One of the current problems of batch automation specialists, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, is the integration of PLC-controlled units (package units, e.g. centrifuges, dryers) into DCS-like control systems maintaining homogenous structure.
On the basis of IEC 61512-1:1997 standard Workgroup 2 of Hungarian Batch Forum prepared a draft Proposal for users and manufacturers of package units that suggests different methods for the integration of package units.
The paper discusses the integration from a system-architecture point of view while the communication problems of control equipment are not considered.
Ferenc Molnár, Manager, BatchControl Ltd; Tibor Chován, Associate Professor, University of Veszprém
In the recent years, batch process optimization has made significant advances. The efforts that went into the development of ISA-S88/IEC 61512 batch control standard has helped us in this direction. However, in todays highly competitive environment, optimization of individual manufacturing plants is not enough. In order to maximize the return on investments, control engineers must turn their attentions to site and company wide optimization along with the optimization of the supply chains.
Typically, batch processes use many different raw materials to produce various products and grades of products. Market demands require frequent changes in product mix under short notice. Thus, batch processes offers greater opportunities than typical continuous processes for the optimization of raw material and intermediate supplies, production scheduling, and upstream and downstream transportations.
For the last five years, the ISA-SP95 committee has been developing the standards for integration of control systems with business systems. This effort is significantly helping site and company wide optimization of manufacturing processes. Additionally, the recent developments in Internet and intranet technologies are increasing the feasibility of supply chain optimization. Today, the challenge for control engineers is to broaden their focus from narrow control issues to wider aspects of enterprise-wide
Successful Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing in a GMP regulated environment is heavily dependent on the flexibility and utilisation of the available processing plant and its guaranteed performance. However, changing plant configuration and revalidation is time consuming and therefore costly.
This paper presents a case study of the implementation of an S88.01 based control system, as part of a strategy to change an existing process building with single product manufacturing capability, to a multipurpose plant and contrasts it with an earlier retrofit implementation to a similar plant for multi-product use.
The paper reviews some important considerations in the equipment model design including the design approach for the control system architecture and methodologies employed for software coding of generic phases, which have been found to yield real economic benefits and ensure the achievement of the required plant flexibility. It also reviews the benefits to the design and validation process from following a structured 'GAMP3' approach.
Some of the measurable economic benefits achieved will be shown to include reduced project implementation time, life cycle cost savings through reduced manpower effort during the engineering and validation stages and production capacity increase.
Eur. Ing. C. M. Marklew C.Eng. B.Sc. FinstMC, MIEE, Principle Engineer, Aston Dane plc; Mr R McGregor, Control Systems Manager, Chirex (Annan) Ltd
Does your plant suffer from high software maintenance costs, inflexible batch production, safety and environmental regulatory pressures?
The Ineos Acrylics Plant at Darwen in the UK was experiencing these problems which are experienced with many legacy batch control systems in the modern chemicals market. The problems can be overcome with an S88 compliant system and approach but the right structure is essential.
Reviewing the problems and plans to replace the system it was clear that a simple migration of the existing system would achieve little and that a complete re-structuring based on S88 was required. It was anticipated that this would give economic benefits of reduced software maintenance costs, increased production flexibility, reduced environmental/safety risks, all of which were achieved and more besides.
This paper describes the process, problems and achievements of the project.
Chris Morse, Engineering Group Leader, Honeywell IASD
The World Batch Forum was originally formed to support the S88 Batch Control standard. All forums since have related in some way to the published part of the standard (S88.01) or to other, generally related, work. The second planned part of the standard is now ready for release. This paper attempts to put that event in perspective in the context of the current status of an on-going effort.
Lynn W. Craig, Manufacturing Automation Associates, Inc.
In the early days of batch automation there was usually a central computer that controlled everything. This computer ran recipes, executed sequential logic, did data acquisition of process variables and also performed direct digital control (DDC) of analog and discrete devices. Since one computer did every thing from sequencing to DDC it was only natural to imbed the shutdown and safety logic into the batch sequential code that was running normal operations. And since one huge monolithic program ran the entire process, the safety logic was always running. In modern S88 (IEC61512) based modular batch automation systems the monolithic code has been replaced by smaller reusable phases controlled by a batch manager that runs recipes. Many who have grown up with DDC imbed safety logic inside the phases. This approach requires an active equipment phase at all times to keep safety logic available at all times. There is a problem with this approach. Phases are transient by nature. They have a beginning and an end. You cannot guarantee that there will always be an active equipment phase. Although there may be some holding logic associated only with a specific phase, often this logic is generic and should be moved up to the unit level. This paper looks at methods available to the user for safety and exception recovery logic in current modular batch systems. Included are case studies of five separate batch projects where recognizing exception conditions and executing safety shutdown logic was essential.
Thomas E. Crowl, Principal Application Engineer, Siemens Moore Process Automation Inc; Cynthia L. Benedict, Lead Project Engineer, Siemens Moore Process Automation Inc.
From which supplier ingredient lots did we compose this batch? Which batches did this pallet feed? Which batches ran after it? Whats the effect of this badly performing unit on previous operations? Whats the correlation between ?
These are not easy questions, too often left without an answer. In many cases we have to rely on a combination of the operators memory, some paper log sheets and a variety of electronic data sources.
With the introduction of the ISA S88.01 standard in 1995 and the work of the SP95 committee, process industries finally receives a structured framework that extends its advantages beyond the pure process control aspects. By applying the standard, we have a basis for building in traceability as an intrinsic function of the production control system.
We will focus on topics like material flow control, the process inventory, integrating quality control and non-conformity checking in the batch recipe and building product genealogy. During the presentation we will explain the methodology behind this and how leading enterprises have already successfully applied it.
Ing. Geert Vanhove, Product Manager proCX, Compex N.V.
All of the components, and the zones in which they reside, that comprise the scope and magnitude of batch manufacturing have always been a challenge to fully comprehend at a single instant. When attempting to automate these components one must understand the unique requirements of the zone in which the component resides, as well as the touch points and interactions between the different S88.01 models. The approaches used to modularize and automate these touch points and interactions have a great impact upon the usability of the automation. The concepts of Unit Modes, Equipment Module and Phase residency are key to a usable automated batch manufacturing application. This paper explores the zones of batch manufacturing and an approach to automate the touch points and interactions of the S88.01 models that provides a very usable application.
David A. Chappell, Technology Leader, Procter & Gamble Company
Alarm and event analysis has long been used for improving process operation. However since alarms are usually generated and displayed based on physical equipment, alarm analysis has been difficult to perform on a batch basis.
In this paper, we focus on the interrelation of alarm/message notification and operator reaction in a batch process and analyze them systematically according to S88.01 Models and Terminology. Balance patterns of alarm/message notification and operator reactions are visually analyzed. Batch based analysis is done by grouping and filtering alarm and event data by master recipe, procedural hierarchy, and batch unit. This makes it easy to find and improve spurious alarms and inefficient operator habits.
In a brief experience in a pharmaceutical plant, spurious alarms have been reduced by approximately 30% and smoother operation procedures have been implemented.
Yoshitaka Yuki, Manager, Yokogawa Corporation of America; Jim Parks, Instrument Engineer, Lonza Inc.
With the introduction of S88.01, the impending introduction of S88.00.02 and the drive to automate batch production from the transmitter to the corporate offices, the time has never been better for the small to medium size batch processing companies to benefit from the best practices of the best-in-class companies.
This paper discusses and gives examples of an approach which aims to match the automation requirements of a batch site with its business drivers. The procedure starts with a comparative analysis of the batch best practices of a site with those of best-in-class sites, in areas such as technology and the application of standards. It also compares the often overlooked, but very important "soft items" such as skills and management practices. A differential analysis then shows the areas where most focus will bring the best results. Finally a strategic automation plan is developed, with the involvement of the site, to deliver the best balance of technology, organization and skills for the most effective business performance.
Dr. Maurice J. Wilkins, Managing Director, Breakthrough Process Consulting Ltd.
ABB Automation has adopted elements of object-oriented analysis and design in their batch control projects in order to take advantage of the reuse potential inherent in the ISA S88.01 model. Here are some architectural and process tradeoffs that anyone should consider before doing their first project:
1) Define modules at a level of granularity that optimizes reuse without obscuring the process.
2) Be prepared to manage significantly smaller and more numerous modules as compared with traditional procedural decomposition.
3) Give careful attention to module interfaces and communications between modules.
4) Begin with solution patterns that have proven to work in the real world.
5) Think beyond code reuse to design and test documentation reuse for quicker payback.
The goals of this paper are: 1) provide a common perspective and terminology for discussions on application reuse, 2) discuss examples of object-oriented analysis and design in batch control and 3) show how most batch control products can be made to support this model, even if they do not utilize object-oriented application languages.
Allen D. Benton, Consulting Application Engineer, ABB Automation Inc.
This paper reviews the information requirements throughout the development lifecycle across different sectors of the batch industries. It then discusses the challenges facing software seeking to enable smarter working through this lifecycle. Aspects considered include the creation, analysis, manipulation and retrieval of process information in ways that enable more effective decision support, eliminate transcription and work cooperatively allowing users to choose the right tool at the right time. Some of the issues addressed are:
Uncertainty and data quality/rigor
Risk vs. consequences including the business context
Resource constraints addressing what should we do next?
Multi-disciplinary synergies and frictions (especially chemist & chemical engineer)
Supporting/competing standards where does ISA/S88 fit?
The differing needs of simulation, design and recipe execution systems
Benefits from an effective IT environment are discussed covering both tactical (direct cost and time savings) and strategic (picking the winners, time to market, more efficient, robust and flexible processes) benefits.
The paper draws conclusions regarding the classes of software needed, the essential nature of fully supporting information sharing, the impact of existing and developing standards, the current state of the art available and some ideas on how the future might look.
The integration of scheduling and control systems invariably involves custom programming or the use of proprietary formats to enable the transfer of production schedules. Currently there are two ISA standards committees developing standard schedule formats. The ISA SP88 committee's S88.02 draft 14 presents a batch schedule object model and a set of relational database tables for the exchange of schedule data. At the time this paper was written the ISA SP95 committee was finishing work on the S95.01 Enterprise/Control Integration standard1. S95.01 defines a production schedule object model. The SP95 committee is continuing work on this model as part of the S95.02 development effort. The committee is expected to develop attributes for the objects.
This paper analyzes the two committee's work and proposes a mapping between the different sets of work. The mapping shows how the S88.02 schedule object model and exchange tables can fit into the S95.01 production schedule model and the on-going S95.02 work.
During the last several years, the ISA Batch Standard (S88.01) has become a commonly understood way of communicating batch system requirements. Traditional batch manufacturing industries such as Food and Beverage, Consumer Products and Pharmaceuticals have realized the benefits of this model. However, non-traditional batch manufacturing applications such as Pulp and Paper, Steel and Plastics can also realize significant productivity benefits by applying the S88.01 model. This paper examines some of these "non-traditional" batch manufacturing applications and outlines the benefits that S88.01 can provide. It also provides a discussion of the usefulness of batch standard terminology for these nontraditional applications. In some instances, the use of actual terminology provides real benefit to the manufacturing process; in others, the application of the standard in principle only is the most appropriate and beneficial.
Rick Salisbury, Batch Development Manager, ABB Automation Inc.
The ISA S88.01 Standard for Batch Control, Part 1: Models and Terminology has had a significant impact on the implementation of industrial control systems since its inception in the early 1990s. One need only examine all the batch management products available in todays marketplace to recognize the affect S88 has had in standardizing the look and feel of batch applications.
While the terms and structures used to describe batch applications are now generally well understood, many users still struggle with the complexities associated with actually building batch control systems. This paper addresses one approach to the how of implementing S88. It presents a proven software development methodology that takes the beast out of batch, and allows users to realize many additional benefits by applying the S88 Standard.
Richard E. Parapar, Principal Systems Engineer, Genentech Inc; William N. Gracely P.E., Principal Technical Consultant, The Foxboro Company; Alan Karner, Applications Manager, APV
Many business and process operational decisions ultimately determine the yield, quality and throughput of batch product operations. Improving operations therefore requires analysis of the process starting at the top of the supply chain down to the plant floor. A comprehensive approach to this problem is presented which applies multiple technologies to clearly identify, characterize and deploy solutions for improving batch operations. Impact modeling identifies and quantifies supply chain improvement opportunities that can be explored through what if scenarios. By drilling down from the enterprise level into the production environment, opportunities for process improvements and optimization are identified. The benefits of implementing process improvements through knowledge capture and deployment and advanced monitoring, control and optimization systems become clear. Analyzing the global impact of interacting local issues within the context of the entire supply chain and using a suite of technologies to solve local issues leads to comprehensive decision support solutions for improving yield, quality and throughput of batch product operations.
Bonnie Haferkamp, Business Development Manager, Gensym Corporation; John Wilson, Sales Manager, Gensym Corporation
Manufacturers consolidating production facilities around contract manufacturing and outsourcing models are reducing noncore activities so that costs can be decreased and responsiveness to market dynamics increased. While most manufacturers made integrated Enterprise Resource Planning business system and Advanced Planning and Scheduling supply chain system decisions, they have not catered for the detailed production coordination requirements in the plant. This will become evident as E-Business dynamics get closer to directly influencing manufacturing operations in operations such as food, beverage, and consumer packaged goods manufacturing.
Plants are still grappling to find software packages to support process based architectures that enable coordinated operations both within the manufacturing site, and externally with the business and supply chain. Market research indicates trends in plant software packages towards model based applications for example MES, in which the model becomes the application. Model based application architectures make it easier to manage the change of migrating from data centric product architectures to the processes represented on the AMR Research REPAC model. This paper examines trends in software products and user manufacturing architectures towards a manufacturing coordination infrastructure that supports requirements emerging from S88 and SP95. The paper addresses the question as to whether manufacturers and software vendors are ready for this change and what it requires to be successful.
Roddy Martin, Research Director , CPG and Lifesciences Manufacturing, AMR Research
FDA enforcement of a 1997 cGMP regulation, 21 CFR Part 11, for electronic records and signatures, is imminent. Compliance policy Guidelines were issued May 1999 to clarify the agencys expectations of pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers. FDA scrutiny of system implementations is anticipated to be extensive. The popular use of open architectures and commercial-off-the-shelf software products for automated batch control and data management has introduced many challenges to compliance with this regulation. In addition, legacy systems are not exempt and verification of data integrity compliance is expected to be retroactive. Batch SCADA systems have the proven ability to reduce costs and improve product consistency and the industry is heavily dependent upon their continued application in the manufacturing environment. Regulatory requirements shall be reviewed, with real-world examples of assessment and compliance resolution for Batch SCADA Systems. System functionality requirements shall be stressed without direct reference to product or service brand names.
Stanley L. Whitman, Consulting Project Manager, Raytheon Consulting & Systems Integration Inc.