2009

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  • Shaft Grounding – Fulfilling the Promise of Variable Frequency Drives

    With the rising cost of energy, the use of variable frequency drives (VFDs) is growing at an increasing rate. By optimizing the frequency of a three-phase alternating-current (AC) induction motor’s voltage supply, a VFD controls the motor’s speed and torque while providing energy savings. And, these energy savings can be quite substantial — 20% or more — making VFDs a “green” solution as well as a wise money-saving investment.

    However, in order to be truly “green,” a technology must be sustainable as well as energy efficient. Yet the currents induced on motor shafts by VFDs can wreak havoc with motor bearings, dramatically shortening motor life and severely diminishing the reliability of systems. To mitigate these currents and realize the full potential of VFDs, a cost-effective method of shaft grounding is essential.

    Adam Willwerth, Development Manager, Electro Static Technology
    02/02/2009
  • Shaft Grounding &#8212; Fulfilling the Promise of Variable Frequency Drives

    With the rising cost of energy, the use of variable frequency drives (VFDs) is growing at an increasing rate. By optimizing the frequency of a three-phase alternating-current (AC) induction motor’s voltage supply, a VFD controls the motor’s speed and torque while providing energy savings. And, these energy savings can be quite substantial —— 20% or more —— making VFDs a “green” solution as well as a wise money-saving investment.

    However, in order to be truly “green,” a technology must be sustainable as well as energy efficient.

    Adam Willwerth, Electro Static Technology
    04/17/2009
  • Video Integrates with SCADA system to Improve Security at Madison,Wisconsin, Water Utility

    On September 11, 2001, America was attacked by terrorists and the United States quickly acknowledged vulnerabilities at our airports, borders, food supply and water supply systems. Soon after, the government required vulnerability assessments (VAs) for all municipalities – with large cities required to go first. In 2002, Madison Water Utility (MWU) in Madison, Wisconsin, underwent its VA and saw a need for video cameras at many locations, including 32 remote sites.
    Two obstacles stood in the way of Madison meeting this need:
    - Technology--whose cameras, network and communication system? How can video work with our SCADA system?
    - Money-- who will pay to protect Madison’s water supply?

    Al Larson P.E., Principal Engineer Madison Water Utility, Madison, WI
    02/24/2009
  • Using Appliance Transaction Modules to Enable Tracking and Tracing

    This white paper discusses how appliance transaction modules enable the sharing of data for tracking and tracing applications.

    Automated tracking and tracing all aspects of a product from its initial ingredients or components, through manufacturing and into the supply chain, is not only a requirement in industries such as food and pharmaceutical, it has also become a viable strategy for all businesses. From automotive and metals to appliances and consumer goods, companies rely on tracking and tracing to lower material, production, inventory, labor and scrap costs while improving customer satisfaction.

    By being able to see, analyze, manage and store selected data in real-time, companies are able to make swift changes to optimize selected areas within their production capabilities. They are also able to document their processes from incoming raw materials, through production and onto the supply chain.

    Alex Cuningham, Online Development Inc.
    03/30/2009
  • A User’s Guide to Pressure Measurement

    A Complete Precision Pressure Measurement Handbook Covering the Fundamentals of Pressure Measurement, Deadweight Pressure Testers, Calibration of Deadweight Testers, AMETEK's Deadweight Testers, Manometers, Secondary Comparison Pressure Standards and the Selection of a Pressure Measurement Standard.

    Ametek
    02/24/2009
  • Control and Condition Monitoring of Reciprocating Compressor

    Optimum configuration for control system, instrumentation, electrical and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressor is presented. Reciprocating compressors are most flexible and most efficient available compressors. Recommendations regarding inter-stage pressure control, capacity control system, temperature control, performance monitoring, local control panel, irregularity and condition monitoring are discussed.

    Installed reciprocating compressor horsepower is approximately three times that of centrifugal compressors and maintenance costs of reciprocating compressors are approximately three and half times greater than those for centrifugal compressors. The expected level of reliability and availability of reciprocating compressors is very high and it presents a real challenge. Advanced methods of control and condition monitoring shall be applied in order to obtain the high level of performance, safety and reliability.

    Amin Almasi, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A.
    09/23/2009
  • Electronic Device Damage in Control Panel of Drilling Unit

    Reliability of electronic circuit boards and electronic devices of console of drilling units are investigated. This new analytical method confirms modification of electronic device dynamic behaviour which installed in console of drilling unit. It is in agreement with experimental results which show electronic circuit board failure in driller console when dynamic loading is considerably less than values required to affect the board when board itself , lonely, is under vibration test.

    Majority of failures of electronic equipment, instruments, sensors and sensitive devices are mechanical in nature. Typical failures caused by break, crack and creep. It is often quite difficult to determine main cause of malfunction and failure. Dynamic and vibration loads caused very large percent of sensitive equipment failures which installed in dynamic environment. Vibration failures are often difficult to trace. Usually resonance situations and coupling effects are involved. Sometimes it does not appear to be any connection between failed parts and vibration loadings.

    The dynamic behaviour of electronic and electric device is a subject that has received considerable attention due to its technical importance. Analysis of electric / electronic devices or circuit boards under dynamic loading was presented previously. But only a limited number of contributions have been published on counteraction effects of complex systems (in this case drilling unit) and these devices. New analytical formulations to study modified dynamic behaviour of sensitive devices in a complex system (drilling unit) is presented. When a circuit board or electronic device is installed in a driller console, there will be complicated interactions between its dynamic characteristics and drilling unit dynamic behaviour. There are different dynamic responses and consequently much more possibilities of resonance. Electronic devices and electronic circuit boards are vulnerable against dynamic loading. For example for a drilling unit revamp project, vibration tests were conducted on electronic circuit board in a broad frequency range and with high vibration amplitudes. Tests were repeated however no damage was observed. During drilling unit site performance test, failure of electronic circuit board was occurred because of mechanical damage. The dynamic loading amplitude was considerably less than amplitude in vibration tests. Extensive investigation shows that failure was only due to modified dynamic behaviour of system.

    Amin Almasi, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A.
    09/23/2009
  • TIA-1005 Industrial Ethernet Cabling Standard

    The Effect on the 10/100 Industrial Ethernet Switch Performance.

    The Anixter Infrastructure Solutions Lab wanted to determine what effect the new TIA-1005 industrial cabling infrastructure standard would have on the data throughput performance of real Ethernet data packets running between SmartBits test cards and various manufacturers' 10/100 Ethernet switches in a real-world simulation. The test included five (5) different IP20-rated switches and three (3) different enterprise rack-mounted switches using various cabling channels made from both Category 5e and Category 6 cabling components and connector pairs that are allowable under the standard. The premise also asserts that the effect of the cabling channel interference will also vary from port to port and switch to switch because of the variable transmitter and receiver functionality.

    Anixter
    10/28/2009
  • Why Do Steam Traps Fail?

    Properly functioning steam traps open to release condensate and automatically close when steam is present. Failed traps waste fuel, reduce efficiency, increase production costs and compromise the overall integrity of the steam and condensate systems. Traps should be tested on a regular basis -- or the neglect may be quite costly.

    Bruce Gorelick, Enercheck Systems and Alan Bandes, UE Systems, Inc.
    10/09/2009
  • Process Analytics Finds Process Problems

    Process Analytics and Intelligence—sometimes called Manufacturing Intelligence—has transformed the way companies produce goods, understand their manufacturing processes, and ensure a quality product in ways we could not have foreseen ten years ago.

    Real-time Analytics have replaced the legacy concept of running reports. Reports that represent a static picture of a process at a fixed point in time are great tools for compliance audits and long term warranty analysis. However, they may not accurately represent the "as-is" state of a process. Reports showing large amounts of data can be difficult to interpret. There are often limitations in how the report data can be drilleddown and viewed.

    With today's large volumes of data, there's a wealth of information that can be gained about the process. But how can this data be captured, managed and retrieved in a way that presents the information in an up-to-theminute easy to understand format? Real-time Analytics provides the techniques and solutions that address this problem. Instead of users having to interpret the data, it's presented in a graphical form enabling them to easily drill down to explore the data in real-time.

    This white paper discusses how Process Analytics is implemented and utilized. Ways of managing and distributing Process Analytics to the organization are presented.

    By Jack Wilkins, Canary Labs
    08/20/2009
  • The Eye for Plant Operator's Eyes

    The plant operator has an extremely valuable and important responsibility: being the force and energy managing a capital enterprise easily worth hundreds of millions of dollars to produce or impact a daily revenue stream of millions, give or take. We ask him to be ever mindful of what the plant might be doing. We ask him to be capable of finding every little problem before it grows into a big one. We ask him to shoulder the burden of everything that goes wrong during his watch, all without any recognition when nothing does, and precious little (if not actual blame) when it goes wrong and he manages to manage. Within his area of responsibility and authority he must be able to view every control loop, most sensors, most pieces of equipment, and much of the supporting utilities, and then adjust as appropriate.

    The failure to maintain situational awareness has been present in almost every disaster event that was not the result of spontaneous complete surprise. Start with the assumption that no one wants an accident. That no one would chose disaster over success. But accidents and disasters happen. We now know to a high degree of certainty that they happen because those in charge of ensuring that they do not happen, aren't aware that they are happening. They fail to know the situation. They are unaware of what is really going on, what is likely to happen, or what isn't happening that they think is. As explained in my book Alarm Management for Process Control, the solution is facilitated by effective operator interface design. Let's follow the path of interface design that can lead to better situation awareness.

    D. H. Rothenberg
    07/08/2009
  • Six Sigma: What? Why? How?

    This whitepaper provides the history of the Six Sigma Symbol and explanations on the Six Sigma concept, the Six Sigma implementation, the Six Sigma calculation and more. Download this paper now.

    Product variation and defects undercut customer loyalty as well as company profits. Six Sigma is a rigorous, disciplined, data-driven methodology that was developed to enhance product quality and company profitability by improving manufacturing and business processes.

    Six Sigma uses statistical analysis to quantitatively measure how a process is performing. That process can involve manufacturing, business practices, products, or service. To be defined as Six Sigma means that the process does not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) – which translates to 99.9997% efficiency.

    A Six Sigma defect is considered anything that can cause customer dissatisfaction, such as being outside of customer specifications. A Six Sigma opportunity is the total number of chances for a defect to occur.

    Six Sigma Concept

    The Six Sigma concept was developed by Motorola in 1986 with the stated goal of improving manufacturing processes and reducing product defects and variation. The underlying goal was to achieve near quality perfection with 99.9997% of variable values within specifications.

    Dataforth
    07/17/2009
  • Benefits of State Based Control

    State Based Control is a plant automation control design based on the principle that all process facilities operate in recognized, definable Process States that represent a variety of normal and abnormal conditions of the process. State Based Control, implemented with the latest developments in object-based technologies, delivers direct benefits to its adopters in a variety of Operational Excellence categories. It results in productivity increases, higher asset utilization of both people and process, automated responses and recovery for abnormal conditions and provides an environment for knowledge capture directly into the control design.

    David Huffman, ABB Inc.
    03/23/2009
  • Measuring Tube Construction Affects the Long&#8211Term Stability of Magnetic Flow Meters

    Electromagnetic flowmeters, also known as mag meters, are popular and proven devices for flow measurement of electrically conductive process fluids and for volumetric filling machine applications. Of prime importance to a mag meter’s accuracy and long term performance is the condition of the metering section of the flow sensor.

    Unlike in most processes, mag meters in filling machine applications are frequently subject to widely varying conditions during normal operation. As a result, they are viable candidates for evaluating their long term performance in an accelerated use environment. Therefore PTB, a German research and approvals agency, in association with KROHNE, undertook an extensive project to study the long term measurement stability of mag meters in filling machine applications.

    Dipl.-Ing. F. Hofmann and Dipl.-Ing. B. Schumacher, Krohne Messtechnik GmbH Co KG Duisburg, Germany
    03/24/2009
  • Measuring Tube Construction Affects the Long-Term Stability of Magnetic Flowmeters

    Electromagnetic flowmeters, also known as mag meters, are popular and proven devices for flow measurement of electrically conductive process fluids and for volumetric filling machine applications. Of prime importance to a mag meter’s accuracy and long term performance is the condition of the metering section of the flow sensor.

    Unlike in most processes, mag meters in filling machine applications are frequently subject to widely varying conditions during normal operation. As a result, they are viable candidates for evaluating their long term performance in an accelerated use environment. Therefore PTB, a German research and approvals agency, in association with KROHNE, undertook an extensive project to study the long term measurement stability of mag meters in filling machine applications.

    Faraday's law is the basis of a mag meter’s measuring principle. The design generally features an electrical isolating liner on the inner wall of the mag meter measuring tube. Linings such as PTFE, PFA or polypropylene or for hygienic reasons, PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) are used. Pressure bearing ceramic pipes are also used. PFA is known to absorb moisture, it can flow under pressure and temperature which means that it changes structure and shape which, in turn, affects the interior diameter of the measuring tube. Changes in the inner diameter of the measuring tube lead to measurement errors. This can lead to problems, especially when extreme precision or repeatability are at stake. This only takes effect after the devices have been in use for longer periods of time and through the corresponding frequent cleaning processes using liquid or steam as are common in the food industry.

    The effect is particularly significant when it comes to mag meters used on filling machines for filling PET bottles ("Filling mag meter"). In this case, an extremely high degree of repeatability is required and the quality of the filling process is directly visible in each individual bottle.

    That is why, in a joint research cooperative with the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (National Metrology Institute) (PTB), KROHNE Messtechnik tested the measurement stability of filling mag meters. Filling mag meters with PFA liners and filling mag meters with ceramic measuring tubes were both tested. The PTB was interested in this test because for more than 20 years Magmeters with ceramic measuring tubes have been the norm in the normal PTB measuring systems as well as in many other calibration test stations. Thanks to this test, the PTB was able to gain additional knowledge about the behavior of these devices under difficult conditions.

    Dipl.-Ing. F. Hofmann and Dipl.-Ing. B. Schumacher, KROHNE Messtechnik GmbH Co KG Duisburg, Germany
    07/29/2009
  • Dynamic Energy Response

    Energy and information are a significant and growing fraction of manufacturing costs and require lifecycle cost management. New facilities will have to be built and operated in order to conserve resources, and existing facilities will have to be upgraded cost effectively. This is not new – economics, regulation, and innovation drive business economics but today the external environment is even more dynamic and requires an appropriate response.

    There is little a user can do about regulation, epoch technology breakthroughs, or market changes except monitor their effect and be prepared to change their business strategy; improved management of energy and information, however is under their control.

    This white paper provides a description of the utility market, the changes that we can expect, and the reasons behind these changes. It also describes guidelines for the industrial user to develop a dynamic energy response.

    Dr. J. Patrick Kennedy, PhD. President and CEO of OSIsoft
    03/12/2009
  • APC: A Status Report

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of the development of process control, advanced process control and related applied engineering technologies, and to discuss the reasons why the industry has encountered difficulties. This paper also presents some recommendations to improve the likelihood of successful APC project implementation, and make some predictions about the future direction of the technology.

    Dr. James R. Ford, P.E., Maverick
    03/26/2009
  • Monitoring and Controlling Energy Efficiency in Utilities/W.A.G.E.S. for Cost Reduction

    Customers in all industries are coming more and more under pressure to measure the cost of their utilities. Important drivers for this pressure are the rising cost of energy and various certifications according to EMAS and the ISO 14000 series. Measuring utilities has been neglected in the past and using calibrated technology is necessary for this process. However, many companies only measure their utility consumption at the custody transfer point, and these few measuring occurrences leave room for inaccuracy and poor energy management. By investing money in efficient measuring tools, is possible to set up energy monitoring systems that measure the consumption of each respective utility close to the point of use. This white paper reviews processes that can help you attain better energy management. Download now to learn more.

    Endress+Hauser
    12/14/2009
  • Conformal Coated Industrial Ethernet Switch Protects Mission Critical Applications

    What is Conformal Coating and why is it important in Industrial Ethernet switches? In mission critical and harsh environments like where most Industrial hardened Ethernet switches are deployed, conformal coating acts as protection against moisture, dust, chemicals, and temperature extremes that if non-protected could result in a complete failure of the electronic system. These applications include mining, metal industries, oil & gas, military applications, chemical processing and food and beverage industries. For additional protection to address the demands of the environmental conditions, Ethernet Direct offers state-of-the art conformal coating on Industrial Ethernet switches that meets MIL-I-46058C standardEthernet networks will expand in time.

    Conformal coatings encapsulate circuit boards and their electronic components in order to prevent the ingress of moisture, fungus, dust and other environmental contaminants. After the coating is made on the switches, it provides environmental and mechanical protection to significantly extend the life of the components and circuitry to meet the challenges in severe industrial environments.

    Based on the increasing demands in various industries, customers' are deploying conformal coatings with expectations to increase the performance of the switch, ease of application, sustainability, quality, functionality, and environmental properties. All of the above expectations require special attention and procedure carried out by Ethernet Direct when manufacturing even single Industrial Ethernet switch in order to ensure that all conformal coated designed switches meet the expected standards. Ethernet Direct continuously to improve the environmental performance and offers conformal coatings Industrial Ethernet switches to enhance more specific demands in industrial applications.

    A product may suffer from degraded life and accuracy if the PCB surface comes in contact with ionic substances, making it contaminated. The ionic substances can be in the form of fingerprint or humidity. Having applied conformal coating effectively reduces the effects of mechanical stress, vibrations or temperature changes when an Industrial Ethernet switch could be installed.

    Ethernet Direct
    07/14/2009
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