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  • Growing a Green Corporation

    Meeting the next great disruptive challenge of the 21st century.

    Since the Industrial Revolution our society has been driven by an increasing pace of change in business and technology. Every decade or two we have faced a new and disruptive event that challenges business and creates opportunities-the locomotive, the electric light, the automobile, the airplane, the television and the computer, to name a few.

    But the greatest disruptive event of the next 20 years may come, not from a single invention, but from the world around us-that is, climate change.

    How your business responds to the climate challenge can either differentiate you from the competition and launch new and successful products, or make you the focus of consumer backlash and eroding margins.

    This paper will explore the environment as a disruptive force in business, examine the consequences of inaction, and propose the benefits of a proactive environmental policy. It will describe increasing levels of investment that a small company, an enterprise or an industry can make to address the challenge and develop a business case. The paper ends with a concrete roadmap to lead you from today's "business as usual" to a long-term sustainable approach to growing a Green corporation.

    After reading this paper, business leaders in every industry will have an understanding of how the environment will impact their business, how to make changes to mitigate the negative impacts and how to explore business opportunities in this new and exciting sustainable world.

    Schneider Electric
  • Personnel Functional Safety Certification: Not All Programs Are Created Equal

    As production runs ever closer to equipment and facility operating limits and new plants come on line in expanding and developing economies, the pressure to design and operate systems more safely and economically is increasing. A key to meeting this goal is having competent people who are knowledgeable and experienced in applying the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 / ISA 84 functional safety standards. To develop and measure an individual's safety engineering competence, several personnel functional safety certification programs have been created. This paper will discuss why these programs are needed and the benefits they deliver to individuals and companies alike. It will also review the characteristics and differences of the various certification programs on the market today, things to watch out for, and some important questions to ask when selecting a certification program.

  • Predicting Control Valve Noise in Gas and Steam Applications: Valve Trim Exit Velocity Head vs. Valve Outlet Mach Number

    Predicting and managing control valve noise has long been an important consideration in gas and steam applications, with the dual goals of protecting workers from potential auditory damage and preventing excessive vibration that could destroy equipment and piping, possibly leading to a catastrophic failure.

    At first glance, it may seem that a logical way to achieve these goals would be to limit valve trim exit velocity head to a maximum of 480 kilopascals (kPa), and this indeed is how some have addressed the issue. In practical application, however, it is an oversimplified approach that, in many cases, will not produce the desired results. First, it typically requires the use of expensive multi-stage or multi-turn trim designs, which can cost up to 30 percent more than a simpler solution. More importantly, it also can create a false sense of safety.

    This article will explain why the focus should instead be on keeping the valve outlet Mach number low. Practical examples will be used to illustrate that:
    - Even if the trim exit velocity head is kept below 480 kPa, valve noise can be unacceptably high if the valve outlet Mach number is high.
    - Even if the trim exit velocity number is above 480 kPa, valve noise can be kept to acceptable levels - without using costly trim designs - if the valve outlet Mach number is kept low.

    Joseph Shahda, Dresser Masoneilan
  • Maintenance and Calibration of HART Field Instrumentation

    The field instrumentation in process plants is beginning to come under more sophisticated metrological discipline. Most new field instruments are now smart digital instruments. One popular digital protocol is the HART (Highway Automated Remote Transducer) protocol, which shares characteristics of both analog and digital control systems.

    This white paper talks about the maintenance and calibration of HART field instruments. To properly service these instruments, precision analog source/measure capability and digital communication are both required. In the past, this operation required two separate tools-a calibrator and a communicator. Now these capabilities are available in one HART documenting process calibrator. Download this white paper to learn more.

    Richard Pirret, Fluke Corporation
  • Convergence and the Programmable Automation Controller

    Ensuring your PAC-based control system is an integrated, robust and flexible information producer helps improve business performance, lower costs and uncover unique opportunities for competitiveness.

    All companies seek ways to make their businesses grow for the long-term. Ask any manufacturer today what he/she needs in an increasingly challenging economy. It's likely to include cutting costs, improving yield, increasing functionality and becoming more competitive in the global marketplace.

    Manufacturing convergence helps companies meet these business drivers - globalization, innovation, productivity and sustainability - by more closely aligning manufacturing technologies and production system operations with the rest of the enterprise. This convergence is enabled throughout the manufacturing environment with the technologies of convergence - control, power, information and communication.

    Rockwell Automation
  • Advanced Process Control: Quick and Easy Energy Savings

    In today's manufacturing environment, there is an urgency to increase operating efficiencies, and to do it quickly. One area of improvement that can produce immediate results is reducing energy consumption. It's good for the environment and it's good for the bottom line. "Energy management," therefore, has become a common best practice, but there is more there than meets the eye. Typically it implies rigorously modeling all or a major portion of the plant, coupled with the use of real-time optimization technology. While this approach has been used successfully, there are other simpler, faster options for reducing energy consumption in a manufacturing plant. Learn what these options are.

    Paul Kesseler, Manager, Advanced Process Control Practice, Global Consulting Group, Invensys Operations Management
  • One Code to Save Millions: ASME Codes and Standards Guide Dominion in Efficiency, Cost Savings and Safety

    In order to stay on track with technology and provide the safest and most efficient working environment at Dominion's nuclear power plants, Dominion follows the codes and standards developed by ASME. ASME's mission is for its Standards & Certification organization "to develop the preeminent, universally applicable codes, standards, conformity assessment programs, and related products and services for the benefit of humanity." These codes and standards have a significant impact on the industry and save companies millions of dollars per year as well as assist in accident prevention and the development of more efficient production and operational practices. This case study illustrates how ASME has helped Dominion become more efficient, increasing cost savings and improving safety measures.

  • Logic Developer Process Edition Function Blocks

    Delivering increased precision and enabling advanced regulatory control strategies for continuous process control.

    Process control in the most generic sense involves continuously controlling an operation or sequence of operations that changes the state of matter; specifically, this includes changing the state of energy, chemical composition, and/or physical dimension of a substance.

    As complex programs need to interface with various aspects of a comprehensive production system, Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks from GE Intelligent Platforms add precision and ease of use to reduce the learning curve for engineers, enable higher operational efficiency, and lower development costs.

    This white paper helps engineers and programmers explore the power provided by Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks that allow changes in the state of matter to be controlled to generate beneficial outputs that enhance life (e.g., fuel in, electricity out), and illustrates how businesses can use these function blocks to realize advanced regulatory control strategies. It also explains the differences between Logic Developer Process Edition and GE's Proficy Machine Edition PLC Logic Developer programming software, which is optimal for leveraging an integrated development environment for discrete, motion, and multi-target control applications.

    GE Intelligent Platforms
  • Advances in Low Voltage Motor Control Center (MCC) Technology Help Reduce Arc-Flash Hazards and Minimize Risks

    Selecting the right MCC equipment leads to improved plant safety, helping protect people and capital investments.

    Measures to increase equipment and personnel safety in manufacturing are reflected in new approaches and technologies designed to help minimize the risk of workplace dangers. One rapidly growing area of focus is reducing the potentially serious hazards associated with arc-flash events. This white paper examines the causes of arc flash, discusses the standards guiding arc-flash safety and details the role arc-resistant motor control centers (MCCs) play in helping contain arc energy. It also highlights the key features of an effective arc-resistant MCC design.

    Managing safety hazards and reducing risks are top priorities for manufacturers across all sectors of industry. With a multitude of potential dangers and new ones continuously emerging, companies must be diligent in their ongoing efforts while considering new approaches and technologies to improve plant safety. One rapidly growing area of focus is implementing techniques and practices designed to reduce hazards and minimize risk for workers who must enter an area with an electrical arc-flash potential.

    Rockwell Automation
  • Achieving 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance Using CENTUM VP

    This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

    CENTUM VP Batch Management is the optional Batch control function for CENTUM VP, which provides recipe management and process management functionality based upon the ISA-88 Batch Control System standard. This whitepaper addresses the use of CENTUM VP and the Batch Management function.

    A detailed analysis of Part 11 was performed, the results of which are listed in the Detailed Part 11 Compliance section (section 5) of this document, which supports the compliance of the CENTUM VP system to Part 11.

    CENTUM VP is a comprehensive software package containing configurable functions that support Part 11 compliance (audit trails, electronic signatures and electronic records). The system capitalizes on its Part 11 compliance attributes in the marketing strategy of supplying FDA regulated industries with state of the art automation capabilities.

    User training and education as well as the development and utilization of policies and procedures are key components of Part 11 compliance which must be established by the user.

  • Guided Wave Radar vs. Differential Pressure Transmitters for Liquid Level Measurement

    Differential pressure transmitters were first implemented in the 1950s but are still one of the most commonly used technologies for measuring liquid level in process industries. In many areas of the industrial level measurement market - including chemical, petrochemical, refining, and electric power generation—differential pressure transmitters have captured the vast majority of level applications; and still represent the largest worldwide sales volume of process level measurement equipment. Their popularity and installed base is so prevalent because DP transmitters are versatile, cost-effective, and due to their long history, plant personnel are familiar with their operation.

  • Proven Techniques and Best Practices for Managing Infrastructure Changes

    When a business expands an existing facility, adds a new location, incorporates an influx of new users, or upgrades an existing infrastructure - it's vital to ensure network readiness and validate infrastructure changes to optimize network performance, minimize user downtime and reduce problems after implementation. This white paper describes a methodology to manage network changes that meets the need for speed of implementation without sacrificing accuracy.

    Changes in business place demands on the network -and the network professionals who administer it -to expand and accommodate different users, additional users, remote locations and more. Situations driving this increased need to manage and validate infrastructure changes include:
    - Mergers and acquisitions: The network established for 50 users must now accommodate 500.
    - Business growth into a new wing or facilities: The current network must handle the increased load of new users, applications and infrastructure.
    - New technologies: As part of a corporate-wide upgrade, a new technology must be validated for all users before implementation.
    - Upgrading the network: When installing new infrastructure devices, the configuration must be validated as correct.

    Regardless of what drives the change, one commonality is the need for rapid and accurate completion of the project. Too often, however, changes are reacted to rather than managed proactively, leading to future problems. In part, this is due to the need for fast deployment: All of these changes must happen as quickly as possible, so shortcuts are taken and steps skipped in the process. Accuracy suffers as a result. And ironically, both the network and IT staffs are slowed down because expanding or upgrading networks without upfront due diligence leads to time-consuming problems and troubleshooting later.

    Fluke Networks
  • Data Loggers and Building Performance

    An Introduction to Data Loggers
    "I just think the only way we are really going to get to the point we need to get to is to start collecting the real data."

    This comment, made in 2009 by New York Public Service Commission chairman Garry Brown, conveys a growing sentiment about the need for solid, objective data on building energy performance.

    When it comes to determining actual building performance, it all comes down to data. Data takes the guesswork out of energy management, and drives decisions as to what energy conservation measures need to be taken in a facility.

    Portable data loggers are ideal tools for collecting building performance data. These affordable, compact devices can help establish energy performance baselines, and reveal a buildings performance under real-world, rather than modeled, circumstances.

    They offer fine-tuned visual performance feedback, measuring changes in temperature and energy use when people enter and exit a building, turn on and off lights, or run heating and cooling systems. They can also be used to help ensure that indoor air quality and comfort are maintained in a building.

  • Passive Techniques for Reducing Input Current Harmonics

    Events over the last several years have focused attention on certain types of loads on the electrical system that result in power quality problems for the user and utility alike. Equipment which has become common place in most facilities including computer power supplies, solid state lighting ballast, adjustable speed drives (ASDs), and un-interruptible power supplies (UPSs) are examples of non-linear loads. Adjustable speed drives are also known as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and are used extensively in the HVAC systems and in numerous industrial applications to control the speed and torque of electric motors. The number of VFDs and their power rating has increased significantly in the past decade. Hence, their contribution to the total electrical load of a power system is significant and cannot be neglected.

    Non-linear loads are loads in which the current waveform does not have a linear relationship with the voltage waveform. In other words, if the input voltage to the load is sinusoidal and the current is non-sinusoidal then such loads will be classified as non-linear loads because of the non-linear relationship between voltage and current. Non-linear loads generate voltage and current harmonics, which can have adverse effects on equipment that are used to deliver electrical energy. Examples of power delivery equipment include power system transformers, feeders, circuit breakers, etc. Power delivery equipment is subject to higher heating losses due to harmonic currents consumed by non-linear loads. Harmonics can have a detrimental effect on emergency or standby power generators, telephones and other sensitive electrical equipment.

    When reactive power compensation in the form of passive power factor improving capacitors are used with non-linear loads, resonance conditions can occur that may result in even higher levels of harmonic voltage and current distortion thereby causing equipment failure, disruption of power service, and fire hazards in extreme conditions.

    The electrical environment has absorbed most of these problems in the past. However, the problem has now reached a magnitude where Europe, the US, and other countries have proposed standards to engineer systems responsibly, considering the electrical environment. IEEE 519-1992 and EN61000-3-2 have evolved to become a common requirement cited when specifying equipment on newly engineered projects. Various harmonic filtering techniques have been developed to meet these specifications. The present IEEE 519-1992 document establishes acceptable levels of harmonics (voltage and current) that can be introduced into the incoming feeders by commercial and industrial users. Where there may have been little cooperation previously from manufacturers to meet such specifications, the adoption of IEEE 519-1992 and other similar world standards now attract the attention of everyone.

    Mahesh M. Swamy, Yaskawa Electric America
  • Present State and a Futuristic Vision of Motor Drive Technology

    One of the main driving force behind the industrial revolution was the invention of the electric motor more than a century ago. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simple and has ultimately aided the advancement of human kind. The advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motor to new realms that was inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors along with digital controls have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. Use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency.

    Yaskawa Electric Corporation has been at the forefront of technology, creating reliable drives that consistently push the envelope of engineering achievement. This paper reviews Yaskawa's role in the development and application of the inverter technology to AC motor drives and introduces some futuristic vision for the motor drive technology. The development of more efficient, more powerful electric motor drives to power the demands of the future is important for achieving energy savings, environmentally harmonious drives that do not pollute the electrical power system, and improving productivity. Yaskawa wants to be an integral part of this future and hopes to contribute significantly to achieve this.

    Mahesh M. Swamy and Tsuneo Kume, Yaskawa Electric America
  • High Slip Braking Software

    The techniques for braking of high inertial loads to a stop traditionally involved either Dynamic Braking or DC Injection Braking technology.

    This article examines a new load-braking alternative called High-Slip Braking (HSB). We identify the different aspects of HSB, look at what it does, how it works, and how it is different from other braking methods. We also provide examples of "real world" successes, and discuss the new technology's cost effectiveness.

    High-slip braking allows the stopping of larger inertial loads without the need for expensive and bulky braking options such as Dynamic Braking packages. Inertial loads involve only inertia and friction and given enough time, will tend to stop on their own when power is removed. HSB is most effective in applications involving infrequent stopping of inertial rotating loads where speed control during stopping is not required. Typical applications of this sort include; laundry equipment, centrifuges, large commercial fans, punch presses, blowers and mixers. Do not use HSB on overhauling static loads like; hoists, winches, elevators, product lifters, and similar applications. HSB is applicable only for complete stopping of the load and not as a means of braking for speed changes.

    The HSB feature has proven to cut braking times in half without requiring extra equipment. The overall stopping time, however, does depend on the inertia of the load being stopped and the characteristics of the motor. HSB can achieve braking torque of more than 100% of the full motor torque.

    Mike Rucinski, Yaskawa Electric America
  • General Purpose Permanent Magnet Motor Drive without Speed and Position Sensor

    1. Power consumption by electric motors
    Worldwide, about two-thirds of the electricity is consumed by motors used in powers industrial facilities. According to DOE report, the motor systems are responsible for 63% of all electricity consumed by U.S. industry and electric bill represents more than 97% of total motor operating costs.

    Rapidly increasing energy cost and strong global interest in reducing carbon dioxide emissions are encouraging industry to pay more attention to high-efficiency motors.

    Permanent Magnet (PM) motors have higher efficiency than induction motors because there are no I2R losses of the rotor. But widespread use of the PM motors has been discouraged by price and requirement of a speed encoder.

    Recent release of low-cost high-performance CPUs and establishment of the speed sensorless control theory (hereinafter referred to as an open-loop vector control method) enables the advent of a general-purpose open-loop control PM drive. In this white paper, the open-loop PM motor control technology is introduced and its characteristics and major application fields are described.

    Jun Kang, Yaskawa Electric America
  • Evaluation of an Alternate Soft Charge Circuit for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) with diode rectifier front end are typically equipped with a resistorcontactor arrangement to limit the inrush current into the dc bus capacitors, thereby providing a means for soft charging the dc bus capacitors. Because of the mechanical nature of the magnetic contactor typically used in VFDs, there exists a concern for fatigue. In addition, during a brown out condition, typically the contactor remains closed and when the voltage recovers, the ensuing transient is often large enough to possibly cause unfavorable influence to surrounding components in the VFD. Many researchers and application engineers have thought about this issue and many are actively seeking non-mechanical solutions in a cost effective manner.

    In this paper, a new topology to soft charge the dc bus capacitor is proposed. Other techniques that have been evaluated are also introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Experimental tests to show the feasibility of the proposed idea is also provided.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
  • A Hybrid 18-Pulse Rectification Scheme for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Diode rectifier with large DC bus capacitors, used in the front ends of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs), draw discontinuous current from the power system resulting in current distortion and hence voltage distortion. Typically, the power system can handle current distortion without showing signs of voltage distortion. However, when the majority of the load on a distribution feeder is made up of VFDs, current distortion becomes an important issue. Multi-pulse techniques to reduce input harmonics are popular because they do not interfere with the existing power system either from higher conducted EMI when active techniques are used or from possible resonance, when capacitor based filters are employed.

    In this paper, a new 18-pulse topology is proposed that has two six-pulse rectifiers powered via a phase-shifting isolation transformer, while the third six-pulse rectifier is fed directly from the AC source via a matching-impedance. This idea relies on harmonic current cancellation strategy rather than the flux cancellation method and results in lower overall harmonics. It is also seen to be smaller in size and weight, and lower in cost compared to an isolation transformer. Experimental results are given to validate the concept.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
  • Understanding the Concepts Behind Short Circuit Current Ratings (SCCR)

    The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.

    The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.

    Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.

    The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.

    Yaskawa Electric America
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