2010

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  • Who Controls the Off Switch?

    We're about to acquire a significant new cybervulnerability. The world's energy utilities are starting to install hundreds of millions of 'smart meters' which contain a remote off switch. Its main purpose is to ensure that customers who default on their payments can be switched remotely to a prepay tariff; secondary purposes include supporting interruptible tariffs and implementing rolling power cuts at times of supply shortage. The off switch creates information security problems of a kind, and on a scale, that the energy companies have not had to face before. From the viewpoint of a cyber attacker - whether a hostile government agency, a terrorist organization or even a militant environmental group - the ideal attack on a target country is to interrupt its citizens' electricity supply. This is the cyber equivalent of a nuclear strike; when electricity stops, then pretty soon everything else does too. Until now, the only plausible ways to do that involved attacks on critical generation, transmission and distribution assets, which are increasingly well defended. Smart meters change the game. The combination of commands that will cause meters to interrupt the supply, of applets and software upgrades that run in the meters, and of cryptographic keys that are used to authenticate these commands and software changes, create a new strategic vulnerability, which we discuss in this paper.

    Posted pursuant to the creative commons license at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.5/

    Ross Anderson and Shailendra Fuloria, Computer Laboratory
    08/02/2010
  • Application Considerations for Continuous Level and Inventory Monitoring of Powder and Bulk Solids

    Continuous level measurement is about one thing, e.g. answering the question "how much stuff do I have". There are many applications where you need to know how much material is in a bin, silo or other vessel type. Usually the desired engineering unit is expressed in terms of volume or weight. "Measuring" volume or weight is not always the most practical approach, sometimes it isn't even viable. Take those silos you have, how do you weigh the ingredients if the silos weren't installed with load systems? Not an easy or inexpensive question to answer. So what do we do? This is where continuous level measurement sensors and systems come into play and offer a viable and cost effective approach.

    The purpose of this white paper is to discuss and inform about the application considerations when you need to measure the level of material continuously or simply determine on a continuous basis how much stuff you have in your vessels.

    BlueLevel
    07/20/2010
  • Understanding Your Choices in Flowmeter Calibration

    When it comes to accurately measuring the flow of liquid or gas, your flowmeter is only as accurate as the equipment it is calibrated on. And in the age of ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 17025, ANSI Z540 and other strict quality standards, this fact is becoming increasingly important.

    Test and measurement applications depend on repeatable flow measurements, which provide performance criteria of the instrument being tested.

    These devices often play a critical role on aircraft, placing greater demand on accurate flow test measurement for fuel consumption or hydraulic actuator controls.

    Industrial operations live and die by the repeatability of process conditions. It is not enough for an individual flow-metering instrument to perform in a consistent manner, day in and day out; measurements must also be replicated. Multiple devices running on the same process-in different physical locations-must perform the same under identical conditions. This is only achieved through repeatable calibration equipment traceability to government metrology laboratories such as NIST.

    For industrial operations, inaccurate flowmeter calibrations can have a serious impact on plant performance, ultimately resulting in poor yields or compromised quality. Therefore, periodic flowmeter calibration must be part of the user's quality process.

    Mubeen Almoustafa, Calibration Application Engineer, Flow Dynamics. Inc.
    07/13/2010
  • Improving SCADA Operations Using Wireless Instrumentation

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the particular ways in which operators can tightly integrate wireless instrumentation networks with SCADA and realize.

    Integrating wireless instrumentation with SCADA systems can drive operational efficiency and reduce deployment costs.

    The use of wireless instruments in pipelines and gas production operations has been gaining momentum over the past few years. Driven by cost cutting measures and the need to gain more operational visibility to meet regulatory requirements, wireless instruments eliminate expensive trenching and cabling while providing access to hard-to-reach areas using self-contained, battery-powered instruments. However, SCADA engineers and operators are facing the challenge of integrating wireless instrumentation networks with other communication infrastructure available in the field. Managing and debugging dispersed wireless networks presents a new level of complexity to field operators that could deter them from adopting wireless instrumentation despite the exceptional savings.

    This paper will look into the particular ways in which operators can tightly integrate wireless instrumentation networks with SCADA and realize the full benefits of such an integrated solution.

    Control Microsystems
    06/29/2010
  • The Evolution of Smart Manufacturing

    Industry professionals have been trying to achieve safe, smart, responsible, sustainable manufacturing for at least the past 20 years, but why have they failed?

    There are serious challenges to overcome in order to achieve smart manufacturing. Some of the challenges include economic instability, changing workforce, the need for greater than incremental increases in productivity, pressures to minimize environmental impacts and an increased focus on safety and risks of accident.

    Manufacturing ought to be safe, because working safely is more profitable and more economical. Manufacturing ought to be smart. The data that is being continuously generated by smart machines and transmitters must be translated into actionable information. Manufacturing ought to be responsible. Manufacturing ought to be sustainable. Energy and waste reduction savings go straight to the bottom line.

    So what is smart manufacturing, and how do we get there? Download this presentation and find out how Walt Boyes defines smart manufacturing and what suggestions he gives to get there.

    Walt Boyes
    06/24/2010
  • Data Loggers and Building Performance

    An Introduction to Data Loggers
    "I just think the only way we are really going to get to the point we need to get to is to start collecting the real data."

    This comment, made in 2009 by New York Public Service Commission chairman Garry Brown, conveys a growing sentiment about the need for solid, objective data on building energy performance.

    When it comes to determining actual building performance, it all comes down to data. Data takes the guesswork out of energy management, and drives decisions as to what energy conservation measures need to be taken in a facility.

    Portable data loggers are ideal tools for collecting building performance data. These affordable, compact devices can help establish energy performance baselines, and reveal a buildings performance under real-world, rather than modeled, circumstances.

    They offer fine-tuned visual performance feedback, measuring changes in temperature and energy use when people enter and exit a building, turn on and off lights, or run heating and cooling systems. They can also be used to help ensure that indoor air quality and comfort are maintained in a building.

    Onset
    05/17/2010
  • Passive Techniques for Reducing Input Current Harmonics

    Events over the last several years have focused attention on certain types of loads on the electrical system that result in power quality problems for the user and utility alike. Equipment which has become common place in most facilities including computer power supplies, solid state lighting ballast, adjustable speed drives (ASDs), and un-interruptible power supplies (UPSs) are examples of non-linear loads. Adjustable speed drives are also known as Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and are used extensively in the HVAC systems and in numerous industrial applications to control the speed and torque of electric motors. The number of VFDs and their power rating has increased significantly in the past decade. Hence, their contribution to the total electrical load of a power system is significant and cannot be neglected.

    Non-linear loads are loads in which the current waveform does not have a linear relationship with the voltage waveform. In other words, if the input voltage to the load is sinusoidal and the current is non-sinusoidal then such loads will be classified as non-linear loads because of the non-linear relationship between voltage and current. Non-linear loads generate voltage and current harmonics, which can have adverse effects on equipment that are used to deliver electrical energy. Examples of power delivery equipment include power system transformers, feeders, circuit breakers, etc. Power delivery equipment is subject to higher heating losses due to harmonic currents consumed by non-linear loads. Harmonics can have a detrimental effect on emergency or standby power generators, telephones and other sensitive electrical equipment.

    When reactive power compensation in the form of passive power factor improving capacitors are used with non-linear loads, resonance conditions can occur that may result in even higher levels of harmonic voltage and current distortion thereby causing equipment failure, disruption of power service, and fire hazards in extreme conditions.

    The electrical environment has absorbed most of these problems in the past. However, the problem has now reached a magnitude where Europe, the US, and other countries have proposed standards to engineer systems responsibly, considering the electrical environment. IEEE 519-1992 and EN61000-3-2 have evolved to become a common requirement cited when specifying equipment on newly engineered projects. Various harmonic filtering techniques have been developed to meet these specifications. The present IEEE 519-1992 document establishes acceptable levels of harmonics (voltage and current) that can be introduced into the incoming feeders by commercial and industrial users. Where there may have been little cooperation previously from manufacturers to meet such specifications, the adoption of IEEE 519-1992 and other similar world standards now attract the attention of everyone.

    Mahesh M. Swamy, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • Present State and a Futuristic Vision of Motor Drive Technology

    One of the main driving force behind the industrial revolution was the invention of the electric motor more than a century ago. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simple and has ultimately aided the advancement of human kind. The advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motor to new realms that was inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors along with digital controls have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. Use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency.

    Yaskawa Electric Corporation has been at the forefront of technology, creating reliable drives that consistently push the envelope of engineering achievement. This paper reviews Yaskawa's role in the development and application of the inverter technology to AC motor drives and introduces some futuristic vision for the motor drive technology. The development of more efficient, more powerful electric motor drives to power the demands of the future is important for achieving energy savings, environmentally harmonious drives that do not pollute the electrical power system, and improving productivity. Yaskawa wants to be an integral part of this future and hopes to contribute significantly to achieve this.

    Mahesh M. Swamy and Tsuneo Kume, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • High Slip Braking Software

    HIGH-SLIP BRAKING SOFTWARE PUTS THE BRAKES ON TRADITIONAL LOAD-BRAKING METHODS WITHOUT EXTERNAL EQUIPMENT
    The techniques for braking of high inertial loads to a stop traditionally involved either Dynamic Braking or DC Injection Braking technology.

    This article examines a new load-braking alternative called High-Slip Braking (HSB). We identify the different aspects of HSB, look at what it does, how it works, and how it is different from other braking methods. We also provide examples of "real world" successes, and discuss the new technology's cost effectiveness.

    WHAT DOES HSB DO?
    High-slip braking allows the stopping of larger inertial loads without the need for expensive and bulky braking options such as Dynamic Braking packages. Inertial loads involve only inertia and friction and given enough time, will tend to stop on their own when power is removed. HSB is most effective in applications involving infrequent stopping of inertial rotating loads where speed control during stopping is not required. Typical applications of this sort include; laundry equipment, centrifuges, large commercial fans, punch presses, blowers and mixers. Do not use HSB on overhauling static loads like; hoists, winches, elevators, product lifters, and similar applications. HSB is applicable only for complete stopping of the load and not as a means of braking for speed changes.

    The HSB feature has proven to cut braking times in half without requiring extra equipment. The overall stopping time, however, does depend on the inertia of the load being stopped and the characteristics of the motor. HSB can achieve braking torque of more than 100% of the full motor torque.

    Mike Rucinski, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • General Purpose Permanent Magnet Motor Drive without Speed and Position Sensor

    1. Power consumption by electric motors
    Worldwide, about two-thirds of the electricity is consumed by motors used in powers industrial facilities. According to DOE report, the motor systems are responsible for 63% of all electricity consumed by U.S. industry and electric bill represents more than 97% of total motor operating costs.

    Rapidly increasing energy cost and strong global interest in reducing carbon dioxide emissions are encouraging industry to pay more attention to high-efficiency motors.

    Permanent Magnet (PM) motors have higher efficiency than induction motors because there are no I2R losses of the rotor. But widespread use of the PM motors has been discouraged by price and requirement of a speed encoder.

    Recent release of low-cost high-performance CPUs and establishment of the speed sensorless control theory (hereinafter referred to as an open-loop vector control method) enables the advent of a general-purpose open-loop control PM drive. In this white paper, the open-loop PM motor control technology is introduced and its characteristics and major application fields are described.

    Jun Kang, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • Evaluation of an Alternate Soft Charge Circuit for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) with diode rectifier front end are typically equipped with a resistorcontactor arrangement to limit the inrush current into the dc bus capacitors, thereby providing a means for soft charging the dc bus capacitors. Because of the mechanical nature of the magnetic contactor typically used in VFDs, there exists a concern for fatigue. In addition, during a brown out condition, typically the contactor remains closed and when the voltage recovers, the ensuing transient is often large enough to possibly cause unfavorable influence to surrounding components in the VFD. Many researchers and application engineers have thought about this issue and many are actively seeking non-mechanical solutions in a cost effective manner.

    In this paper, a new topology to soft charge the dc bus capacitor is proposed. Other techniques that have been evaluated are also introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Experimental tests to show the feasibility of the proposed idea is also provided.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • A Hybrid 18-Pulse Rectification Scheme for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Diode rectifier with large DC bus capacitors, used in the front ends of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs), draw discontinuous current from the power system resulting in current distortion and hence voltage distortion. Typically, the power system can handle current distortion without showing signs of voltage distortion. However, when the majority of the load on a distribution feeder is made up of VFDs, current distortion becomes an important issue. Multi-pulse techniques to reduce input harmonics are popular because they do not interfere with the existing power system either from higher conducted EMI when active techniques are used or from possible resonance, when capacitor based filters are employed.

    In this paper, a new 18-pulse topology is proposed that has two six-pulse rectifiers powered via a phase-shifting isolation transformer, while the third six-pulse rectifier is fed directly from the AC source via a matching-impedance. This idea relies on harmonic current cancellation strategy rather than the flux cancellation method and results in lower overall harmonics. It is also seen to be smaller in size and weight, and lower in cost compared to an isolation transformer. Experimental results are given to validate the concept.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • Understanding the Concepts Behind Short Circuit Current Ratings (SCCR)

    The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.

    The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.

    Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.

    The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.

    Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • Proven Techniques and Best Practices for Managing Infrastructure Changes

    When a business expands an existing facility, adds a new location, incorporates an influx of new users, or upgrades an existing infrastructure - it's vital to ensure network readiness and validate infrastructure changes to optimize network performance, minimize user downtime and reduce problems after implementation. This white paper describes a methodology to manage network changes that meets the need for speed of implementation without sacrificing accuracy.

    Changes in business place demands on the network -and the network professionals who administer it -to expand and accommodate different users, additional users, remote locations and more. Situations driving this increased need to manage and validate infrastructure changes include:
    - Mergers and acquisitions: The network established for 50 users must now accommodate 500.
    - Business growth into a new wing or facilities: The current network must handle the increased load of new users, applications and infrastructure.
    - New technologies: As part of a corporate-wide upgrade, a new technology must be validated for all users before implementation.
    - Upgrading the network: When installing new infrastructure devices, the configuration must be validated as correct.

    Regardless of what drives the change, one commonality is the need for rapid and accurate completion of the project. Too often, however, changes are reacted to rather than managed proactively, leading to future problems. In part, this is due to the need for fast deployment: All of these changes must happen as quickly as possible, so shortcuts are taken and steps skipped in the process. Accuracy suffers as a result. And ironically, both the network and IT staffs are slowed down because expanding or upgrading networks without upfront due diligence leads to time-consuming problems and troubleshooting later.

    Fluke Networks
    04/28/2010
  • Guided Wave Radar vs. Differential Pressure Transmitters for Liquid Level Measurement

    Differential pressure transmitters were first implemented in the 1950s but are still one of the most commonly used technologies for measuring liquid level in process industries. In many areas of the industrial level measurement market - including chemical, petrochemical, refining, and electric power generation—differential pressure transmitters have captured the vast majority of level applications; and still represent the largest worldwide sales volume of process level measurement equipment. Their popularity and installed base is so prevalent because DP transmitters are versatile, cost-effective, and due to their long history, plant personnel are familiar with their operation.

    Magnetrol
    04/27/2010
  • Achieving 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance Using CENTUM VP

    This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

    CENTUM VP Batch Management is the optional Batch control function for CENTUM VP, which provides recipe management and process management functionality based upon the ISA-88 Batch Control System standard. This whitepaper addresses the use of CENTUM VP and the Batch Management function.

    A detailed analysis of Part 11 was performed, the results of which are listed in the Detailed Part 11 Compliance section (section 5) of this document, which supports the compliance of the CENTUM VP system to Part 11.

    CENTUM VP is a comprehensive software package containing configurable functions that support Part 11 compliance (audit trails, electronic signatures and electronic records). The system capitalizes on its Part 11 compliance attributes in the marketing strategy of supplying FDA regulated industries with state of the art automation capabilities.

    User training and education as well as the development and utilization of policies and procedures are key components of Part 11 compliance which must be established by the user.

    Yokogawa
    04/15/2010
  • Logic Developer Process Edition Function Blocks

    Delivering increased precision and enabling advanced regulatory control strategies for continuous process control.

    Process control in the most generic sense involves continuously controlling an operation or sequence of operations that changes the state of matter; specifically, this includes changing the state of energy, chemical composition, and/or physical dimension of a substance.

    As complex programs need to interface with various aspects of a comprehensive production system, Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks from GE Intelligent Platforms add precision and ease of use to reduce the learning curve for engineers, enable higher operational efficiency, and lower development costs.

    This white paper helps engineers and programmers explore the power provided by Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks that allow changes in the state of matter to be controlled to generate beneficial outputs that enhance life (e.g., fuel in, electricity out), and illustrates how businesses can use these function blocks to realize advanced regulatory control strategies. It also explains the differences between Logic Developer Process Edition and GE's Proficy Machine Edition PLC Logic Developer programming software, which is optimal for leveraging an integrated development environment for discrete, motion, and multi-target control applications.

    GE Intelligent Platforms
    04/07/2010
  • Advances in Low Voltage Motor Control Center (MCC) Technology Help Reduce Arc-Flash Hazards and Minimize Risks

    Selecting the right MCC equipment leads to improved plant safety, helping protect people and capital investments.

    Measures to increase equipment and personnel safety in manufacturing are reflected in new approaches and technologies designed to help minimize the risk of workplace dangers. One rapidly growing area of focus is reducing the potentially serious hazards associated with arc-flash events. This white paper examines the causes of arc flash, discusses the standards guiding arc-flash safety and details the role arc-resistant motor control centers (MCCs) play in helping contain arc energy. It also highlights the key features of an effective arc-resistant MCC design.

    Managing safety hazards and reducing risks are top priorities for manufacturers across all sectors of industry. With a multitude of potential dangers and new ones continuously emerging, companies must be diligent in their ongoing efforts while considering new approaches and technologies to improve plant safety. One rapidly growing area of focus is implementing techniques and practices designed to reduce hazards and minimize risk for workers who must enter an area with an electrical arc-flash potential.

    Rockwell Automation
    04/07/2010
  • Process Control Domain - Security Requirements for Vendors

    This document specifies requirements and gives recommendations for IT security to be fulfilled by vendors of process control and automation systems to be used in Process Control Domains (PCDs).

    This covers both:
    - Policy; addressing the vendor's organization, IT security processes, technological solutions and governance of IT security.
    - Commissioning and maintenance

    When a vendor's solution complies with this set of requirements, the solution is considered by the WIB to be PCD Security Compatible.

    Download this paper to learn more.

    WIB
    04/07/2010
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