An unfortunate stumble during DCS migration could trip up your career, but a clear path forward will deliver benefits for decades to come. This first of two white papers walks you through DCS pre-planning step-by-step--from generating baselines to doing gap analysis--for a successful upgrade.
Clearly the need - and potential payoff - for more effective operators is enormous and intuitively understood. But rather than reversing course and simplifying operators' tasks, industry is only increasing the pressure. Learn how to transform your people into strategic assets.
This white paper offers a critique of the state of advanced process control using model-predictive control, reviewing the developments over the last 25 years since the debut of dynamic matrix control in early 1980 and also the state of technology, both old and new, available now.
For the past decade, industrial control systems administrators and engineers wanted to believe that 'air gaps' truly existed between their systems and the rest of the world. They have also hoped that 'security by obscurity' would keep them safe from security threats. Those days are over. While the consequences of cyber attacks and malware are no longer in doubt, the question remains. "Exactly how can an engineer reliably secure his or her control system?" This white paper outlines a simple and cost effective answer - a security solution based on OPC technology that can be deployed in almost any industrial facility today.
The technology advances in control systems and open systems have afforded us improved efficiency, productivity and the ability to advance our operations. However, these improved technology advances have also come with risks that threaten these efficiencies. Viruses; an increased dependency on uptime, availability and reliability; operator errors and increased regulations are just some of the threats today's manufacturers need to contend with when managing their operations. In this Putman Media Special Report, we take a look at the cybersecurity issues today's manufacturers need to contend with; identify control systems vulnerabilities and offer a three-step approach for building better cyber security at your operations.
Most plants have a huge opportunity to improve control system performance. The control system directly impacts the operation of the plant, and control loop problems lead directly to loss of efficiency, reduced production rates and other factors, affecting the bottom line. Measuring control systems performance is important and there are many ways to do it. Download this e-book to learn how ExperTune's PlantTriage software measures over 80 different aspects of control performance and to learn how you can improve control performance at your plant.
This paper summarizes Sigurd Skogestad's struggles in the plantwide control field.
A chemical plant may have thousands of measurements and control loops. By the term plantwide control it is not meant the tuning and behavior of each of these loops, but rather the control philosophy of the overall plant with emphasis on the structural decisions. In practice, the control system is usually divided into several layers, separated by time scale.
My interest in this field of plantwide control dates back to 1983 when I started my PhD work at Caltech. As an application, I worked on distillation column control, which is excellent example of a plantwide control problem. I was inspired by Greg Shinskey's book on Distillation Control, which came out with a second edition in 1984 (Shinskey, 1984). In particular, I liked his systematic procedure, which involved computing the steady-state relative gain array (RGA) for 12 different control structures ("configurations"); the DV-configuration, LV-configuration, ratio configuration, and so on. However, when I looked in more detail on the procedure I discovered that its theoretical basis was weak. First, it did not actually include all structures, and it even eliminated the DB-configuration as "impossible" even through it is workable in practise (Luyben, 1989). Second, controllability theory tells that the steady-state RGA by itself is actually not useful, except that one should avoid pairing on negative gains. Third, the procedure focused on dual composition control, while one in practise uses only single end control, for example, because it may be optimal economically to use maximum heating to maximize the recovery of the valuable product.
Sigurd Skogestad, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
This initiative is the first step in filling a noticeable void in industry - the lack of independent competency training in the Operations Management (MES/MOM) arena. This lack of wide-scale competency is recognized as a major barrier to plant and supply chain optimization and global operations excellence.
With members in 85 countries globally, MESA is an independent, objective community of like-minded people and enterprises working to make Operations more reliable, capable and profitable. Some of the foremost experts across the Operations Management landscape are leading the knowledge sharing within the MESA community by offering programs across 4 continents by mid-2011.
MESA Certificate of Competency (CoC) for MES/MOM* Methodologies: A 4-day, comprehensive program of MES/MOM Methodologies courses aimed at Systems Analysts, Architects, Programmers, Project Managers and Consultants.
MESA Certificate of Awareness (CoA) for MES/MOM Business Awareness: A 2-day, high-level program of MES/MOM Business Functions courses geared for executives, manufacturing/operations and IT personnel and sales professionals. The CoA courses are higher level, short versions of the CoC program.
Manufacturing and production processes have had to be controlled and managed in real time from inception because they change in real time frames. This has been a natural premise of industrial systems from the very beginning.
A major shift in the business of manufacturing has occurred over the past decade which is driving the dynamics of the business of production and manufacturing into the real time domain. Business variables, such as energy prices, feedstock prices and even product prices have rapidly transitioned from highly transactional time frames into real time frames. For example, a decade ago it was not unusual for an industrial plant to establish a contract with its energy supplier that essentially set the price over an extended time period, of often 6 months or even a year. Today, in most parts of the world, long term fixed price energy contracts are not being offered and the price of energy can change multiple times in a day. The implications of this transition are clear. Industrial business functions must operate in real time to be effective and efficient. Industrial companies that do not move to real time business operations will be at a severe disadvantage in their marketplace.
Invensys, Peter G. MartinInvensys, Peter G. Martin
Electrical power generation, transmission and distribution systems thrived for decades with limited intelligence. But present and future demands, particularly the need to incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) into the generation mix, are necessitating a transition to a smart grid.
An Introduction to Data Loggers
"I just think the only way we are really going to get to the point we need to get to is to start collecting the real data."
This comment, made in 2009 by New York Public Service Commission chairman Garry Brown, conveys a growing sentiment about the need for solid, objective data on building energy performance.
When it comes to determining actual building performance, it all comes down to data. Data takes the guesswork out of energy management, and drives decisions as to what energy conservation measures need to be taken in a facility.
Portable data loggers are ideal tools for collecting building performance data. These affordable, compact devices can help establish energy performance baselines, and reveal a buildings performance under real-world, rather than modeled, circumstances.
They offer fine-tuned visual performance feedback, measuring changes in temperature and energy use when people enter and exit a building, turn on and off lights, or run heating and cooling systems. They can also be used to help ensure that indoor air quality and comfort are maintained in a building.
The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.
The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.
Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.
The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.
Effective Feb. 2, 2010, the PHMSA rule: 49 CFR Parts 192, 195 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors imposes control room management requirements for all regulated gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper gives an overview of requirements and time line to comply. Learn more.
In the past, DCS systems were large, expensive and very complex. This drove many control engineers to use programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and human machine interface (HMI) in order to lower cost. Today, these implementations are consistently more expensive than DCS systems for the same process or batch application. Many forward thinking engineers using PLCs and HMI in process or batch applications have learned there are ways to significantly reduce costs, speed implementation and improve operations. Download this white paper to learn key advantages of DCS systems over PLC/HMI engineered systems and the typical value of each.
With the significant threat that system interruptions pose to business performance and profitability, businesses are increasingly seeking to gain a competitive advantage by re-engineering their solutions, driving the need to deliver higher levels of availability.
Commonly used in process industries, high availability solutions can also benefit discrete manufacturers that have high-speed, complex operations, where the economic impact of even a short period of downtime or momentary interruptions can have huge financial, operational, and reputational costs.
This paper demonstrates the financial upside of investing in high availability technology and takes a closer look at the latest features and benefits of such solutions for continuous, efficient operations.
This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.
CENTUM VP Batch Management is the optional Batch control function for CENTUM VP, which provides recipe management and process management functionality based upon the ISA-88 Batch Control System standard. This whitepaper addresses the use of CENTUM VP and the Batch Management function.
A detailed analysis of Part 11 was performed, the results of which are listed in the Detailed Part 11 Compliance section (section 5) of this document, which supports the compliance of the CENTUM VP system to Part 11.
CENTUM VP is a comprehensive software package containing configurable functions that support Part 11 compliance (audit trails, electronic signatures and electronic records). The system capitalizes on its Part 11 compliance attributes in the marketing strategy of supplying FDA regulated industries with state of the art automation capabilities.
User training and education as well as the development and utilization of policies and procedures are key components of Part 11 compliance which must be established by the user.
Delivering increased precision and enabling advanced regulatory control strategies for continuous process control.
Process control in the most generic sense involves continuously controlling an operation or sequence of operations that changes the state of matter; specifically, this includes changing the state of energy, chemical composition, and/or physical dimension of a substance.
As complex programs need to interface with various aspects of a comprehensive production system, Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks from GE Intelligent Platforms add precision and ease of use to reduce the learning curve for engineers, enable higher operational efficiency, and lower development costs.
This white paper helps engineers and programmers explore the power provided by Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks that allow changes in the state of matter to be controlled to generate beneficial outputs that enhance life (e.g., fuel in, electricity out), and illustrates how businesses can use these function blocks to realize advanced regulatory control strategies. It also explains the differences between Logic Developer Process Edition and GE's Proficy Machine Edition PLC Logic Developer programming software, which is optimal for leveraging an integrated development environment for discrete, motion, and multi-target control applications.
Industrial-strength Ethernet, bolstered by its wireless component, is giving facilities the tools they need to operate lean and mean and succeed in an uncertain economy. As companies seek to identify and eliminate waste, continually improve processes, and respond to the increasing product demands of its customers, they are learning to do more with less, whether it is resources, staff, or money. This white paper examines some reasons and factors influencing the success of the Ethernet infrastructure, while looking at the accelerating presence of its wireless component.
Most companies are gathering trillions of bytes of data, day after day, at no small cost, and then doing very little with it. Worse still, the data often is not serving its primary function very cost-effectively.
The "culprit," so to speak, is video surveillance data, the information captured by the video cameras that are used throughout most modern facilities.
But the situation is changing rapidly, thanks to an application called Video Analytics. This white paper looks at the new software technology, and how it can be used to leverage video data for better security and business performance.
This white paper argues strongly that meeting greenhouse gas emissions targets set within the Kyoto Protocol will fail unless Active Energy Efficiency becomes compulsory.
Active Energy Efficiency is defined as effecting permanent change through measurement, monitoring and control of energy usage. Passive energy efficiency is regarded as the installation of countermeasures against thermal losses, the use of low consumption equipment and so forth.
It is vital, but insufficient, to make use of energy saving equipment and devices such as low energy lighting. Without proper control, these measures often merely militate against energy losses rather than make a real reduction in energy consumed and in the way it is used.
Everything that consumes power - from direct electricity consumption through lighting, heating and most significantly electric motors, but also in HVAC control, boiler control and so forth - must be addressed actively if sustained gains are to be made. This includes changing the culture and mindsets of groups of individuals, resulting in behavioral shifts at work and at home, but clearly, this need is reduced by greater use of technical controls.