White Papers

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  • What Portals Can Do For You

    Portal technology is invigorating today’s corporate environments. The business world began to take portal technology seriously when the price to acquire start-up portal sites, such as My Space and Flickr, exceeded all anticipated market values. Today, portals are big business. Corporations ranging from SAP to Microsoft are investing millions of dollars in portal technology. New technology frameworks and architecture have changed the direction of portal solutions from recreational portals to the enterprise. Networking technology enables users to access portal-based web sites from anywhere and through any device that can connect to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to help you determine how your company can benefit from a portal environment, and from the OSIsoft suite of visualization components. For the first time, you can combine data stored in PI with enterprise systems and other data sources into easily accessible information, visible to individuals, teams, sites, and the enterprise.

    OSIsoft, Inc.
  • Ethernet: Convergence, Choices, Complexities

    Ethernet is penetrating ever deeper into distributed control systems to provide real-time control with direct connectivity to a wider range of devices while the insatiable demand for speed (e.g. 10/40/100G) from commercial applications are driving continual advancements in Ethernet technologies.

    This expanded deployment of Ethernet in manufacturing has triggered convergence of disparate network technologies over a single Ethernet-based infrastructure, and this trend has left the controls engineer with new and more choices regarding how to specify and install the necessary network physical infrastructure. It becomes clear that network convergence continues unabated, thereby generating new and expanded network physical infrastructure options.

    Shawn Adams, PANDUIT Global Solutions Manager
  • Wireless Devices Deliver Great Benefits for Temperature Monitoring

    Temperature is certainly among the most commonly measured parameters in industry, science, and academia. Recently, the growth of wireless instrumentation technology, along with some clever innovations, has provided new ways to apply temperature measurement sensors combined with personal computers to collect, tabulate, and analyze the data obtained. For complex, multi-sensor applications, wireless devices provide a means to eliminate the nuisance of running multiple leads over long distances through harnesses or conduit to a control room, instrument panel, or equipment rack, while keeping track of which leads are which. For simpler one or two sensor applications, it means installing the wireless sensor, setting up the receiver, and being done. There are now so many wireless transmitting and receiving devices available for temperature measurement that nearly any application can benefit from their use. In any case, it is certainly worth a closer look. As a bonus, most of the devices discussed below also work with humidity and barometric pressure sensors.

  • OPC UA: An End-User’s Perspective

    OPC UA (Unified Architecture) represents the OPC Foundation’s most recent set of specifications for Process Control and Automation system interconnectivity. This paper explains OPC UA from the perspective of the organization that will benefit from the connectivity, in other words: the End User.

    The challenge for companies implementing OPC UA is to ensure their data is secure from unauthorized access.

    This whitepaper discusses the following:
    - OPC Overview
    - OPC communication with DCOM
    - OPC via Web Services
    - Object Oriented Data Model
    - Improving Existing OPC Specifications
    - Backwards Compatibility and Tunneling
    - OPC at the Enterprise level
    - Security

    OPC Training Institute
  • Things Go Better with S88: A New Approach to the Engineering Process

    Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design. This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.

    Vince Miller, Automation Services Director, BE&K Engineering
  • Do We Really Understand What We are Doing? Does anyone else?

    This paper focuses on the difficulty of adequately understanding and clearly describing the functionality a manufacturing process is to have before hard implementation decisions are cast in stone. Traditional functional specifications are necessary, but are often not complete until the design process is well along and are typically extensive, detailed documents that take a long time to write, are not completed until many design decisions have already been made, and require so much time to read and understand that timely feedback is difficult to get. This paper presents the argument that a clear, simple functional description, essentially a functional specification lite, is required very early in any design process. Based on the S88 model, the functional description is useful for any type of process, is the basis for early agreement on the way the process will function, is the starting point for a detailed functional specification, and can be the basis for defining what should be automated – and, perhaps more important, what should not.

    Lynn W. Craig, President, Manufacturing Automation Associates, Inc.
  • Operations Excellence

    Our premise is that functional organizations, namely Production, Quality and Information Technology, have traditionally solved problems by rapid problem definition, solution design and implementation of automated controls or other computer systems. The new economy represents a new set of challenges to that approach. These challenges take the form of worldwide production and distribution, cost pressures, site consolidation and more stringent FDA requirements. Meeting these challenges requires a new method of problem solving in the areas of manufacturing and quality control. This will also have a significant impact on the roles and responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) organization in supporting these two organizations. This paper is based on consulting work that dealt with the overall business transformation associated with management and control of batch records while improving operating efficiency and reducing risk.

    Patrick Hurley, Principal, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young
  • My Plant is Manual, Why do I need S88?

    Many manufacturers do not feel confident in designing new facilities incorporating full automation and want to retain manual control of the process. For these users, good modeling of the plant to achieve the required functionality is even more important. Most manual facilities still incorporate a degree of automation for those functions that are difficult to control manually. These functions must be accessible to the operators and easy to use in both normal and emergency situations. This paper will examine why the use of good structured design, following the principals of S88, will provide major benefits to these users. A structured analysis will identify common modules in the design and may even indicate where reuse of predefined modules is possible. This approach speeds up both the design and validation of the new facility. The user can decide the level of automation that they feel comfortable with and this may vary with the functions provided. E.g. Process operations may be performed by manually selecting equipment modules, but cleaning may be fully automatic to ensure that it is effective. In all these situations a structured model is the key to understanding the functionality of the plant.

    Keith Morris, Automation Consultant, Kvaerner E&C
  • Seamless Project Execution, from URS to Implementation and Maintenance

    Since ISA S88 is widely used within the process industry, process engineers and automation engineers from the DCS vendors use a common terminology and structure to describe batch processes and production. Why not use this common language to create a DCS independent relational database, mapping the S88 plant model supporting the life-cycle of the project from (Unit Requirements specification (URS) to maintenance? Starting with the URS, data are entered in the database and over the subsequent project phases more and more details are added by the control engineers. The consequent use of types and instances together with the possibility to define rules for the later generation of software reduces the necessary input to a minimum. As just one database exists instead of several documents, data inconsistency is impossible. Later the DCS specific solutions are referenced to the system independent types in the database. The software for the DCS is generated, applying the rules set for the project. The implementation time and the number of faults is reduced dramatically. The content of the database is documented automatically through several standardized reports according to GMP guidelines, providing a secure way to fully comply with FDA requirements. Test documents are generated in a similar way.

    Steffen Uebler, Dipl. Ing., SIEMENS AG
  • Building MES-applications with S95

    In modern manufacturing processes the usage of automated systems is inevitable. Whether for production control, scheduling, or reporting, computers are used. The capturing of data out of the production process and transforming these data into information is one of the objectives of MESsystems. This paper describes the recent development and introduction of several MES-modules in a manufacturing plant. The role of the S95 standard in the project will be highlighted. After a short introduction of the production process, the business goals for the project are briefly discussed. Then the functional and technical architecture will be presented. The results and the benefits of the project will be discussed as well as the benefits of using the S95 standards during the project. The paper ends with the lessons learned.

    Ing. Erwin Winkel MBA, WBF
  • Business Driven Systems Migration

    Traditional approaches all have one thing in common, they are exciting for engineers but not the business. The problems we are typically faced with are that, despite the age of equipment, it works and the latest technology in itself does not have sufficient benefit.

    Ian Allan, Billy Melvin, Peter Iles-Smith, WBF
  • The Project Management Office

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the general concepts, purposes, specific responsibilities and requirements associated with an effective project management office.

    Thomas B. Clark, Project Success, Inc. (formerly YCA)
  • Applying S88, S95 and B2MML in Dairy Enterprise

    This paper describes an end-user project at Arla Foods with the use of the B2MML schemas as a corporate standard for communication between business systems and ES systems. This presentation presents the real-life experiences using the B2MML schemas. The focus is on the Schedule and Performance schemas. A short introduction on the general use of S88 and S95 within Arla Foods is also included.

    Arne Svendsen, WBF
  • Control and Automation Maturity Models in Brewing

    How do we choose the correct level of automation for a specific process area within the production facility? How does that facility drive a migration of its control systems to meet increasing business requirements while taking into account very real constraints around skills levels, existing equipment configuration and materials availability? These are very real questions confronting all of us today irrespective of how basic or advanced our manufacturing facilities are. This paper will present the concept of simple maturity models with regard to manufacturing control systems. It will illustrate the use of the concept through the typical stages of brewing control system complexity found within a brewing process area – from the completely manual to the fully automated configurations. It will further explore the typical business drivers which would require the move from one level to the next as well as the impacted factors to be addressed when driving a migration of the control system. Relevant international standards like S95 and S88 will also be put into context as helpful models and terminology in support of the business needs of SABMiller.

    Willie Lotz, WBF
  • Control Room Information for Batch Processes

    The way information is displayed in control rooms in the process industry has developed a long way from the original gauges, chart recorders and lamps to the sophisticated windows based Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) of today. But does the increased ability to acquire and to display more data mean that better information is conveyed than before? This paper describes how the technology available recently has not been used to its full potential in control rooms. A methodology is then developed to make use of the available technology in order to assist in the delivery of information to control room operators. In particular the paper addresses the problems in the presentation of plant data in the context of batch processes.

    Milton Crofts, WBF
  • Modeling Batch Process Using Virtual Variable

    Batch processes include many steps or phases related to each other, either sequentially or in parallel, in order to achieve a final outcome. The final outcome of such a process is measured using quality and quantity targets. However, in many cases, the outcomes of intermediate steps/phases are not measured even though their values may significantly affect the final outcome. In some cases the measurement of such intermediate outcomes is not possible. This paper will present a methodology that applies “Virtual Variables” in order to predict and qualify the intermediate outcome. With this qualification and modeling, the final outcome of the whole batch can be targeted better. The paper will present data from an actual project where such a methodology has been applied.

    Dr. Eyal Brill, WBF
  • Modular Turnkey Concept for Pharmaceutical Sterile Formulation

    Sterile parental drugs are produced or formulated in GMP critical batch processes. These automated process installations are submitted to a lot of regulations applying to the pharmaceutical industry. The formulation installations have moved away from being just utilities’ extensions and have become speciality installations requiring a high degree of technical skills but also knowledge about regulations and qualification/validation strategies. As a result of this, specialised suppliers offer a turnkey approach for concept design, detailed engineering, realisation and qualification of these installations. Nowadays, there is a move towards modular skid concepts, allowing prefabrication and pre-qualification.

    Geert Roggeman, WBF
  • The Price of the Split Between S88 and S95

    There is a split between the S88 and S95 models. In the physical model of S95 procedures are not implemented. Why not use PFC for logistic procedures instead of BPML? Your engineers have to learn only one model. You can combine S88 and S95 to one physical model for batch, continuous and discrete processing including storage units.

    Siem Broersen, WBF
  • Applying S88 – The Human Factor

    Automating manufacturing using S88 concepts across all of the operational manufacturing boundaries has become the “standard” way of doing business. The current states of the technologies used in these automations require individuals with unique capabilities, or success is not always certain. Each operational area has its own unique needs, and not only requires a high minimum capability in that area, but the ability to coordinate across areas as well. This paper will address what it takes to identify levels of capability, and the benefits of taking advantage of this capability. What to look for in evaluating an organization’s capability in delivering automation will also be discussed, as well as the results of not knowing your automation supplier’s real capabilities.

    David A. Chappell, WBF
  • Tight Integration of Process Control with ERP

    For a new built multi purpose batch plant the DCS with batch control was linked to the ERP-system of the company to ensure consistent and up-to-date data in all systems. As part of the engineering project of the plant the part process control using a standard DCS with the manufacturers batch extension was configured to meet the needs resulting from the task to exchange data and information with the company-wide used ERP-system. Nevertheless a direct link between DCS and ERP-system could not be established due to misfit of data models. Therefore a „Middleware“ was configured and programmed. The Middleware takes relevant material information from the ERP-system and sends it to the batch control system, takes master recipes from the batch control system and creates planning recipes within the ERP-system, takes orders from the ERP and generates control recipes within the batch control system, and reads current data from the DCS about process status and material consumption and production and creates messages for the ERP. The Middleware translates between DCS and ERP generating fast and reliable information-update in all systems and comprehensive documentation of the production process with low personnel efforts.

    Martin Zeller, WBF
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