Enterprises with industrial operations typically utilize at least two types of computer networks Information Technology (IT) - a network that supports enterprise information system functions like finance, HR, order entry, planning, email and document creation; and Operational Technology (OT) - a network that controls operations in real-time. This second type of network supports realtime or control system products, generally referred to as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, Distributed Control Systems (DCS), Energy Management Systems (EMS) or Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), depending on the industry.
There has been much discussion and debate around the convergence between Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT). In an effort to provide better visibility and information flow between revenue generating OT assets and enterprise applications, these systems have often been interconnected, in many cases without properly securing the control systems from cyber attack first. If the IT and OT networks are interconnected, yet not properly secured, a breach to one network can easily transverse to the other, leaving the entire computing infrastructure at risk.
At first glance, interconnected IT and OT networks appear to share similar technologies and so a common approach to cyber-security might be indicated. However, upon deeper inspection, many important differences in IT and OT networks will be revealed. The unique characteristics of OT systems and networks preclude many traditional IT enterprise security products from operating safely without impairing operations, and when introduced, can provide significant disruption and downtime to these real-time, revenue generating assets.
This paper is intended to educate IT professionals on the unique requirements of operational technology and what is required to properly secure these networks from cyber attack, so that organizations can assure security, reliability and safety of information and revenue generating assets.
Whitelisting is described by its advocates as "the next great thing" that will displace anti-virus technologies as the host intrusion prevention technology of choice. Anti-virus has a checkered history in operations networks and control systems many people have horror stories of how they installed anti-virus and so impaired their test system that they simply couldn't trust deploying it in production.
While anti-virus systems detect "bad" files that match signatures of known malware, whitelisting technologies identify "good" executables on a host and refuse to execute unauthorized or modified executables, presumably because such executables may contain malware. This is a least privilege approach of denying everything that is not specifically approved.
In this paper the Industrial Defender team performs an independent analysis of a variety of whitelisting solutions for their applicability to control systems. The paper closes with some recommendations related to this technology and areas for further research.
Mitigating physical security risks in the world's energyproducing regions is a challenge that governments and companies have grappled with for decades. In this white paper, we'll discuss the key requirements for an effective platform security strategy, and we will describe the latest technology enabling an integrated security management system.
The industrial process industry is experiencing a dynamic growth in functional safety applications. That's why companies are actively taking steps to comply with worldwide safety standards such as ANSI/ISA 84 and IEC 61508/61511. To accomplish this, safety practitioners look to a "new generation" of equipmentsuch as single-loop logic solversspecifically designed and approved for safety instrumented systems.
Get this digital interactive white paper and learn how single loop logic solvers can help you achieve your plant safety objectives.
Despite increased dependence on ever more powerful processcontrol and safety systems, the human aspect remains an integral part of any plant's operation. ABB believes that the safety system of the future is no longer an "addon," that is designed and supplied separately from the rest of the plant or process, but an integral part of it.
The need: Lower life cycle costs and better information flow. The solution: New standards offer more choices for integrating safety and process control
The specialty chemical industry is facing a number of difficult challenges, including increasingly stringent safety and compliance mandates, higher energy and feedstock prices, and aging plants and equipment all intensified by global competition. Compounding these challenges is the expanding breadth of specialty chemical product categories, forcing manufacturers to dedicate major resources and continuously innovate to maintain market share and capitalize on new opportunities.
Despite the size of the industry and the increase in worldwide demand for all types of specialty chemicals, margins must be managed closely due to rising costs, more demanding customers, and the fact that all products no matter how innovative eventually go off-patent and face stiff competition. While operating a chemical plant is tough business, opportunities exist for companies to optimize their investments and improve both productivity and their financial performance.
Risks prevail wherever people store, process or handle hazardous or toxic materials. In the specialty chemical industry, these risks are compounded because the hazard has the potential to impact a numerous of people. A spill of a toxic agent or explosion could be hazardous to a population within a plant or the surrounding area. One growing area of focus in recent years is the critical value of safety in protecting people, and helping safeguard the environment and plant assets, as well as reducing lifecycle costs.
This paper explores how changes in industry standards and technology developments are expanding how safety systems are applied in specialty chemical applications. It also examines the operational and competitive advantages driving the trend toward separate yet interoperable safety and process control platforms with common development tools. These benefits include reduced life cycle costs, expanded access to process data and improved plant-wide integration.
The increased use of plant floor automation to achieve production goals has created a dependency on PLCs, PC control systems and programmable automation. These devices and their logic programs are costly to develop but vital to the running of the plant, and are viewed by most companies as corporate assets. It is incumbent on plant and corporate management to insure that proper safeguards are in place to protect and manage change in these assets. This paper examines the sources and types of changes that take place in plant automation environments, and the considerations and approaches necessary to safeguard your automation systems through the effective use of a Change Management System (CMS).
Download this white paper to learn more about how Honeywell delivers operational integration with critical system segregation. With secure integration at the control data and operator levels, Honeywell provides a common operational interface to the process and equipment for both control and safety. And, with integrated simulation tools, we're able to verify and optimize hazard identification, train operators and verify the responses.
Advanced technologies require more intelligent protection. For todays preferred switched mode power supplies, it means that circuit breakers and fuses are inadequate for protecting individual 24 VDC load circuits.
Looking for a solution to deter, prevent, detect and mitigate potential threats? Ensuring safety goes far beyond simply installing fail-safe controllers or a safety instrumented system. In fact, to mitigate the risk of serious incidents that can cause injury to personnel, equipment and the environment, it is important to consider safety from all aspects of a plant's operation.
This paper presents the results of tests conducted on ways of reducing the four types of noise encountered in electronic instrument circuits.
The use of computers and other sensitive electronic equipment in process instrumentation systems has demanded that more attention be give to electrical noise pickup in instrument circuits.
The superior performance of aluminum-Mylar tape shields in comparison with copper braid and copper served wire shields for static noise rejection is described.
The effect of twisting wires to cancel magnetic noise is compared to various shielding materials. Twisting the wires is shown to be the most effective practical way of reducing magnetic noise.
The control of common mode noise by the proper grounding of shields in thermocouple circuits is shown. The use of single grounding points in shield circuits grounded at the couple is recommended. Multipair cables with individual isolated pair shields are recommended.
Comparative results on cross talk elimination in multipair cables are presented. Individually shielded pairs are recommended as the most practical means of cross talk rejection in instrument circuits.
Dekoron Division, Samuel Moore & Company. Bruce E. Klipec