White Papers

on 'Level'

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  • Proof Testing Level Instruments

    Partial proof testing of level instruments can save millions of dollars while maintaining required safety ratings

  • Protecting Our Water – Keep Chemicals in the Tank

    Leaking or overfilled tanks containing chemicals, fuel oil, sewage or hazardous materials can cause environmental problems, contaminate drinking water and cost a company millions of dollars in fines and lawsuits. This white paper discusses instrumentation and controls that can monitor the contents of a vessel and provide an alarm in the event of a leak or overfill event.

    Bill Sholette, Ricardo Chavez, Endress+Hauser
  • Guided Wave Radar vs. Differential Pressure Transmitters for Liquid Level Measurement

    Differential pressure transmitters were first implemented in the 1950s but are still one of the most commonly used technologies for measuring liquid level in process industries. In many areas of the industrial level measurement market - including chemical, petrochemical, refining, and electric power generation—differential pressure transmitters have captured the vast majority of level applications; and still represent the largest worldwide sales volume of process level measurement equipment. Their popularity and installed base is so prevalent because DP transmitters are versatile, cost-effective, and due to their long history, plant personnel are familiar with their operation.

  • Information on pH measurement

    The pH value is the most frequently used process variable in analysis. The pH value is of outstanding importance in water and environmental analysis and in almost all sectors of industry. Whether the cheese in a dairy is of the right quality, the water in a drinking water supply causes corrosion damage, or the precipitation in a treatment plant for waste water from an electroplating process occurs at the optimal point, all depend on such parameters as the pH value.

    Dr. Jürgen Schleicher, JUMO
  • Information on the Amperometric Measurement of free Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide and Ozone in Water

    For reasons of hygiene, drinking water, or any other water that people come into direct or indirect contact with, often has to be treated with compounds that destroy any micro-organisms contained in it. Chlorine, chlorine compounds or ozone are very often used as disinfectants. In this sensitive area, a high level of safety for the consumer is an absolute requirement, and for this reason, systems are used for fully automatic monitoring, control and recording of the disinfectant concentration.

    Amperometric sensors provide the best means of monitoring the disinfectant concentration. This technical publication will present the electrochemical fundamentals and the application technology of such sensors in an easily understood form, for the interested reader.

    Dr. Jürgen Schleicher, JUMO
  • Information on the Measurement of Hydrogen Peroxid and Peracetic Acid

    The methods of determination of hydrogen peroxide and PAA are not continuous measurements methods, but methods whereby the concentration is measured for samples taken at certain times.

    These analytical methods are laboratory procedures requiring a considerable outlay in personnel and time.

    In order to regulate the concentration of a disinfectant, it is advantageous if a electrical signal is available that is continuous and proportional to the concentration of disinfectant. This signal can then be used as the input signal for controlling a disinfectant metering system, i.e. the concentration can be completely automatically regulated.

    A membrane-covered amperometric measuring cell can be used for monitoring the peracetic acid concentration and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

    Dr. Jürgen Schleicher, JUMO
  • Information on Measuring Ammonia in Water

    Measurement of the concentration of ammonia in aqueous solutions is a requirement in many application areas, such as for coolant monitoring and laboratory measurement. A fast and simple way of measuring ammonia can be achieved by using a membranecovered, gas-sensitive sensor that operates on a potentiometric principle.

    But for successful measurement, several factors must be observed when handling and using of ammonia sensors. This brochure is intended to provide practical help for the users in these matters. A special emphasis is placed on the two application situations mentioned above.

    Furthermore, the construction and mode of operation of the sensor is also briefly described.

    Dr. Jürgen Schleicher, JUMO
  • Performance Comparison of Flexible Detector Designs

    The purpose of this paper is to present test results of recent measurements on a scintillating fill fluid (i.e., liquid scintillator filled) detector and a scintillating fiber bundle detector designs, and explain the observed differences in efficiency. In our measurements we observe an improvement of factor of 2.4 in light output for a fill fluid detector compared to scintillating fiber bundle detector of the same diameter and length.

    Ronan Measurements
  • Unraveling the complexities of level detection

    Sensing options enable users to choose the sensor most appropriate per application. However, making this choice is not often easy. This paper helps unravel the complexities and differences between sensor types and applications in which they are used.

  • Flow, Level and Environmental Handbook

    Features a variety of meters and controllers, portable, handheld and laboratory instruments measuring air, water, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, flow, high viscosity liquids, and pH.

    Omega Engineering
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