The installed base of industrial networks has been engineered to operate reliably in the specific applications and environments for which they were designed, closed and are operated, using a myriad of physical layer communications and language protocols. Product obsolescence, limitations in scalability of the infrastructure and potential loss of highly skilled support all have become high-Pareto challenges to managers. In this white paper, we introduce a new approach to the modernization of industrial automation and distributed control networks, and describe how they can be deployed to easily, rapidly, securely, reliably and cost-effectively transform existing legacy industrial network infrastructures into those that can support IP-enabled devices that are connected to the Cloud.
The emergence of new technologies, new ergonomic standards and increased public awareness of workplace health issues have combined to inspire a dramatic shift in console design. Today's control workstations are smaller, more functional and more aesthetically appealing than earlier generations. Download this informational package to learn more.
In this new paper, F. Greg Shinskey offers more than a dozen practical ways to reduce cost with process control. These are not theoretical examples, but specific cases from real plants. Learn from one of the masters in the field of process control and see how your plant can benefit today.
Every manufacturing industry is experiencing an increasing speed of business in several areas including changing schedules, customer needs, costs of materials, business models, and technologies. At the same time, many manufacturing sites - particularly in the discrete industries - have growing complexity in their operations which makes it more difficult to adapt. There are more SKUs and data to keep track of due to product proliferation, smaller lot sizes and compliance to government regulations.
The demands for improved speed and agility conflict with the plants' ability to respond. Visibility into current operations, including the control system, is the primary reason manufacturers buy Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). This visibility provides the information necessary for informed decision making in real-time by all levels of personnel - plant floor to the executives.
MES applications contain the critical business processes for executing a production schedule. These systems perform the production-centric functions of planning, controlling, operating and informing. Control systems execute these functions to produce the goods needed to fulfill customer orders. By integrating MES with control systems, manufacturing becomes more agile for responding to change in this increasingly dynamic business environment. Integrating the control system with the MES allows for more effective and broader set of production management functions to improve operational performance.
To improve their response to operational issues, managers look to technology for connecting plant floor and business systems for automated business processes. Some manufacturers have implemented point solutions on a case-by-case basis. Because of the higher development costs and support issues, this approach is not acceptable. An integration platform is needed.
An unfortunate stumble during DCS migration could trip up your career, but a clear path forward will deliver benefits for decades to come. This first of two white papers walks you through DCS pre-planning step-by-step--from generating baselines to doing gap analysis--for a successful upgrade.
Your control system is keeping secrets from you. The DCS, PLC and historian have a huge amount of data from your plant. But they are not telling you the most important secrets that lie within. Learn how to uncover the secrets to save energy, increase production and improve product quality.
The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.
The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.
Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.
The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.
Find out how the new generation of electric control-valve actuators can provide significant benefits over compressed-air actuators in process applications, leading to energy savings, fewer maintenance problems and superior control performance.
Effective Feb. 2, 2010, the PHMSA rule: 49 CFR Parts 192, 195 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors imposes control room management requirements for all regulated gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper gives an overview of requirements and time line to comply. Learn more.
Ensuring your PAC-based control system is an integrated, robust and flexible information producer helps improve business performance, lower costs and uncover unique opportunities for competitiveness.
All companies seek ways to make their businesses grow for the long-term. Ask any manufacturer today what he/she needs in an increasingly challenging economy. It's likely to include cutting costs, improving yield, increasing functionality and becoming more competitive in the global marketplace.
Manufacturing convergence helps companies meet these business drivers - globalization, innovation, productivity and sustainability - by more closely aligning manufacturing technologies and production system operations with the rest of the enterprise. This convergence is enabled throughout the manufacturing environment with the technologies of convergence - control, power, information and communication.
Motion controllers have incorporated key technologies over the years to meet the increasing demands of high-performance applications such as profile cutting and wafer inspection. This document covers the top 10 key technologies that impact your high-performance motion control applications.
Today's control system engineers face competing design demands: increase embedded system performance and functionality, without sacrificing quality or breaking the budget. It is difficult to meet these challenges using traditional design and verification approaches.
Without simulation it is impossible to verify a control design until late in the development process when hardware prototypes become available. This is not an insurmountable problem for simpler designs with predictable system behavior, because there are fewer sources of error in simpler control algorithms--and those errors can often be resolved by tuning the controller on the hardware prototype.
Today's multidomain designs combine mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, control, and embedded software components. For these systems, it is no longer practical to delay verification until late in the development process. As system complexity grows, the potential for errors and suboptimal designs increase. These problems are easiest to address when they are identified early in the development process. When design problems are discovered late, they are often expensive to correct and require time-consuming hardware fixes. In some cases the hardware simply cannot be changed late in the development process, resulting in a product that fails to meet its original specifications.
Traditional verification methods are also inadequate for testing all corner cases in a design. For some control applications, it is impractical or unsafe to test the full operating envelope of the system on hardware.
Arkadiy Turevskiy, Technical Marketing Manager, The MathWorks
The manner in which a measured process variable responds over time to changes in the controller output signal is fundamental to the design and tuning of a PID controller. The best way to learn about the dynamic behavior of a process is to perform experiments, commonly referred to as "bump tests." Critical to success is that the process data generated by the bump test be descriptive of actual process behavior. Discussed are the qualities required for "good" dynamic data and methods for modeling the dynamic data for controller design. Parameters from the dynamic model are not only used in correlations to compute tuning values, but also provide insight into controller design parameters such as loop sample time and whether dead time presents a performance challenge. It is becoming increasingly common for dynamic studies to be performed with the controller in automatic (closed loop). For closed loop studies, the dynamic data is generated by bumping the set point. The method for using closed loop data is illustrated. Concepts in this work are illustrated using a level control simulation.
Jeffrey Arbogast, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Connecticut; Douglas J. Cooper, PhD, Control Station, Inc.; & Robert C. Rice, PhD, Control Station, Inc.
Two of the most popular architectures for improving regulatory performance and increasing profitability are 1) cascade control and 2) feed forward with feedback trim. Both architectures trade off additional complexity in the form of instrumentation and engineering time for a controller better able to reject the impact of disturbances on the measured process variable. These architectures neither benefit nor detract from set point tracking performance. This paper compares and contrasts the two architectures and links the benefits of improved disturbance rejection with reducing energy costs in addition to improved product quality and reduced equipment wear. A comparative example is presented using data from a jacketed reactor process.
The cost per barrel of crude oil has risen dramatically, increasing the burden on process facilities for both quality and profitable production. Adjusted for inflation, the cost of oil averaged $19.61 from 1945 thru 2003. October 2004 saw the per barrel cost of oil rise to $55.67, rising 70% over a 10-month timeframe and negatively impacting the profitability of companies across the process industries. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, 43% of all energy consumed by the average pulp and paper mill is production related. This percentage is small when compared to other industry segments such as chemicals (74%), glass (89%), and aluminum (93%). In all cases, the higher cost of energy suggests that all process companies need to examine ways of curbing energy consumption and unnecessary increases to their cost of goods sold. Improving disturbance rejection through cascade control or feed forward with feedback trim provides one way of achieving those objectives.
Improved disturbance rejection is linked to increased product quality and decreased equipment wear. These are important benefits, indeed. Consider the market value of high quality white paper produced by an average mill. On-spec production is sold at a premium of approximately $2,000 per ton whereas "seconds" are sold on the aftermarket at a discounted rate. Of the 6%-8% that fails to meet spec, only 2% is classified as "broke" and able to be re-pulped Next consider the investment in production facilities. With initial costs of $400-$500 million and annual maintenance budgets approaching 10%, mills must operate 24 x 7 in order to recoup the investment. Effective disturbance rejection provides a valuable means of achieving a return on those investments through increased quality and decreased equipment wear. Additionally, it offers significant value in terms of reduced energy consumption and lower cost of goods sold.
Robert C. Rice, PhD, & Douglas J. Cooper, PhD, Control Station, Inc.
This paper presents a simple velocity control algorithm with output modification that has equivalent PI controller dynamic performance. The controller features a single control setting. The controller can be easily configured in most distributed control systems, DCS and programmable logic controllers, PLC. This paper describes the controller structure and behavior as well as a control discussion on how to calculate the gain setting to determine the control period. To test the controller on real processes, the algorithm was applied to a level and temperature control loops in a laboratory, pilot plant setting.
A control algorithm presented by W. Steven Woodward describes a velocity temperature controller  that modifies the output based on the pervious output value when the process variable, PV, crosses the set point, SP. This modification is the algebraic mean of the current calculated output and the output value at the previous zero error crossing. The term coined for this algorithm is "Take-Back-Half", TBH. This algorithm has some acceptance as an embedded application controller. In this paper we will demonstrate how this controller has applicability to the process control community. In section 2, we will describe how this simple controller functions and how to program the algorithm. Section 3 discusses the controller system design and how to determine the gain setting and closed loop period. In section 4 we will present the results of the pilot scale controllers performance. In section 5 we will set forth the conclusions.
Applying virtualization technology to open industrial control systems reduces lifecycle costs and improves manageability. Virtualization helps reduce hardware and operating system (OS) changes, improve computer platform resource utilization and makes the system easier to maintain. Read this white paper to learn more.
This white paper explains why application whitelisting is being rapidly adopted as a security and control solution for SCADA systems. In three major sections, the paper: 1) Provides a detailed perspective on how application whitelisting technology works. 2) Discusses the use and benefits of whitelisting technologies in SCADA and Energy environments. 3) Explains how the technology is adapting to function in environments where controlled software changes are needed.
Although multivariable control is now a wellestablished technology, new applications are still being found on which to apply it.In this paper, details will be presented on how Honeywells Profit Controller was found to be particularly applicable to the offshore production process.
Small manufacturers with batch or sequenceoriented processes can finally stop settling for less. A new generation of fully featured process automation systems can now meet small manufacturers' automation needs and budgets.