White Papers

on 'PLCs & PACs'

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  • When to Use Multi-Function Safety Relays

    Often the Best Choice for Applications Where SingleFunction Relays Aren’t Capable Enough and a Safety-Rated PLC is Overkill

    Lenny Filipkowski, AutomationDirect
  • Redundancy for OPC

    Redundancy in a process control system means that some or all of the system is duplicated, or redundant. The goal is to eliminate, as much as possible, any single point of failure. When a piece of equipment or a communication link goes down, a similar or identical component is ready to take over.

    Robert McIlvride, Andew Thomas, Cogent Real‐Time Systems Inc.
  • Security for Industrial Automation and Control Systems

    The security of industrial automation and control systems becomes increasingly critical as different networks are connected and systems are integrated in a collaborative manufacturing environment. For industrial automation and control systems the potential impact of an attack maybe more serious than for computer systems in general. Users of industrial automation and control systems need to pay correspondingly increased attention to these issues.

  • I/O Solutions for Temperature Monitoring

    Sensors used for temperature monitoring and data acquisition can be quite varied. Applications ranging from simple room temperature monitoring to highly sophisticated batch process control can all be highly dependent on obtaining accurate temperature readings. The primary types of sensors used for this purpose are resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, integrated circuit temperature detectors (ICTDs), thermistors, and infrared sensors.

    Opto 22
  • Upgrading Your DCS: Why You Might Need to Do It Sooner Than You Think

    As the next generation of distributed control systems (DCS) becomes firmly established in the marketplace, each manufacturer must face the issue of upgrading. DCS vendors already have plans to phase out support of many current platforms, so it's critical that you develop your own plan for moving forward. The most proactive plants already have a plan in place, while others might continue scavenging for spare parts to keep their existing controllers alive for as long as possible. Of course, every control system has a limited lifespan and must be upgraded eventually. The big question is when. Download this white paper to learn when you should upgrade your DCS.

    Maverick Technologies
  • Signal Conditioning and PC-Based Data Acquisition Handbook

    The third edition of this handbook has been totally revised to include new chapters on Electrical Measurements, Vibration and Sound, Displacement and Position Sensing, and Transducer Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS). It also includes several new subjects and expands on selected items including Fundamental Signal Conditioning.

    All chapters have been enhanced to address more practical applications than theoretical measurement issues. They cover a major topic with sufficient detail to help readers understand the basic principles of sensor operation and the need for careful system interconnections. The handbook also discusses key issues concerning the data acquisition system's multiplexing and signal conditioning circuits, and analog-to-digital converters. These three functions establish the overall accuracy, resolution, speed, and sensitivity of data acquisition systems and determine how well the systems perform.

    Data acquisition systems measure, store, display, and analyze information collected from a variety of devices. Most measurements require a transducer or a sensor, a device that converts a measurable physical quantity into an electrical signal. Examples include temperature, strain, acceleration, pressure, vibration, and sound. Yet others are humidity, flow, level, velocity, charge, pH, and chemical composition.

    Measurement Computing
  • Convergence and the Programmable Automation Controller

    Ensuring your PAC-based control system is an integrated, robust and flexible information producer helps improve business performance, lower costs and uncover unique opportunities for competitiveness.

    All companies seek ways to make their businesses grow for the long-term. Ask any manufacturer today what he/she needs in an increasingly challenging economy. It's likely to include cutting costs, improving yield, increasing functionality and becoming more competitive in the global marketplace.

    Manufacturing convergence helps companies meet these business drivers - globalization, innovation, productivity and sustainability - by more closely aligning manufacturing technologies and production system operations with the rest of the enterprise. This convergence is enabled throughout the manufacturing environment with the technologies of convergence - control, power, information and communication.

    Rockwell Automation
  • Benefits of State Based Control

    State Based Control is a plant automation control design based on the principle that all process facilities operate in recognized, definable Process States that represent a variety of normal and abnormal conditions of the process. State Based Control, implemented with the latest developments in object-based technologies, delivers direct benefits to its adopters in a variety of Operational Excellence categories. It results in productivity increases, higher asset utilization of both people and process, automated responses and recovery for abnormal conditions and provides an environment for knowledge capture directly into the control design.

    David Huffman, ABB Inc.
  • PACs for industrial control, the future of control

    As the technological differences between PC and PLC wane, a new class of controllers is emerging for engineers who require higher loop rates, advanced control algorithms, more analog capabilities, and better integration with the enterprise network. The Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) describes this new generation of industrial controllers that combines the functionality of a PLC and a PC.

    National Instruments
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