White Papers

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  • Breaking From Equipment in General Recipes

    The successful application of general recipes requires a significant break from the equipment centric S88 model of Master Recipes. The proven Modular Batch Automation concept, centered on the unit and equipment model, does not apply when equipment independent general recipes are developed. Even though a general recipe may define equipment constraints, it is not equipment centric, but instead uses materials as the primary organizational element. A general recipe defines the materials to be used, their order of addition or extraction, and the actions to be taken on the materials. This leads to a different set of rules to organize the general recipe procedural model. This paper defines the rules we have found useful for determining process stage and process operation boundaries. These rules include material and equipment constraints, but also include business level constraints associated with the identification and tracking of intermediate materials. These rules result in general recipes that can be readily transformed into process cell-specific equipment recipes for a variety of equipment layouts.

    Dennis Brandl, Senior Director- Strategic Initiatives, Sequencia Corporation
  • 21CFR11 Compliance and Automated Manufacturing

    21CFR11 took effect in August 1997 with little observed regulatory activity. However, that has changed and increasing numbers of FDA warning letters are being generated for software used for GMP, GCP, or GLP (GxP) purposes. This presentation addresses the impact of 21CFR11 on automated manufacturing systems and processes. Included is an overview of 21CFR11, a discussion of the processes needed to reach compliance including 21CFR11 interpretation, assessment and remediation activities, and some issues for legacy automated manufacturing systems. It will speak to the compliance issues for hybrid systems where there is a multiplicity of options between totally paper based and totally electronic systems.

    Kathleen Waters, Manager - Automation IT, Genentech Inc.
  • Reducing Electrical Noise in Instrument Circuits

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted on ways of reducing the four types of noise encountered in electronic instrument circuits.

    The use of computers and other sensitive electronic equipment in process instrumentation systems has demanded that more attention be give to electrical noise pickup in instrument circuits.

    The superior performance of aluminum-Mylar tape shields in comparison with copper braid and copper served wire shields for static noise rejection is described.

    The effect of twisting wires to cancel magnetic noise is compared to various shielding materials. Twisting the wires is shown to be the most effective practical way of reducing magnetic noise.

    The control of common mode noise by the proper grounding of shields in thermocouple circuits is shown. The use of single grounding points in shield circuits grounded at the couple is recommended. Multipair cables with individual isolated pair shields are recommended.

    Comparative results on cross talk elimination in multipair cables are presented. Individually shielded pairs are recommended as the most practical means of cross talk rejection in instrument circuits.

    Dekoron Division, Samuel Moore & Company. Bruce E. Klipec
  • Introduction to fieldbus

    This paper provides an understandable explanation of Foundation fieldbus H1 and Profibus PA, along with the advantages of using a fieldbus network.

    Moore Industries
  • Control Valve Handbook, 4th Edition

    The Control Valve Handbook has been a primary reference since its first printing in 1965. This fourth edition presents vital information on control valve performance and the latest technologies.

    Emerson Process Management
  • The ins and outs of I/P transducers

    I/P transducers are relatively simple devices, but there are numerous factors to take into account before selecting one. This paper provides a complete understanding of the factors involved in making the correct product selection, installation, and maintenance.

    ControlAir Inc.
  • Open access to device intelligence

    Learn the latest in field device tool technology from this new monthly newsletter from FDT Group. It includes information on new technologies, news, products, applications and events, as well as how to become DTM certified.

    FDT Group
  • Fieldbus and remote I/O system comparison

    Nine manufacturers participated in the FuRIOS study, which was conduced under the lead of an end user company that compared its use of fieldbus and remote I/O in full detail.

    Aventis, Infraserv
  • How to manage your fieldbus project

    This paper discusses the relationship and workflow, both internal and external, that an organization needs to follow to successfully manage and complete a fieldbus automation project.

  • Unlocking the promise of digital field devices

    This paper demonstrates how field device tool (FDT) technology standardizes the communication interface between field devices and systems, while complementing EDDL from design, installation and commissioning, to operation and maintenance, and eventual asset replacement.

    FDT Group
  • New technologies move fieldbus into next generation

    The fieldbus industry has responded to the disparate or non-existent interfaces to control systems and configuration tools with the introduction of two new complementary technologies – FDT and Enhanced EDDL.

    FDT Group
  • The value proposition of Profibus in the process industries

    This paper takes a look at the wide range of application profiles for Profibus that address specific manufacturing needs, and the fieldbus applications of four end-users who have realized benefits from using Profibus in typical process industry applications.

    ARC Advisory Group
  • Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook

    Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook is a useful compendium of physical constants, tables and information no engineer responsible for field instrumentation should be without. It has been required reading in many companies for many years. Download your free copy now.

  • Flow, Level and Environmental Handbook

    Features a variety of meters and controllers, portable, handheld and laboratory instruments measuring air, water, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, flow, high viscosity liquids, and pH.

    Omega Engineering
  • The four-fold method of noise and vibration control

    This White Paper on noise and vibration control will help control engineers get a better understanding of how passive acoustical systems can best be used to improve instrument designs at the lowest cost.

    E-A-R Specialty Composites
  • Temperature measurement applications in power plants

    This White Paper covers some of the basics of temperature measurement, and leads into some of the technical advances that impart a higher degree of safety and reliability to power plant operation.

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