Reliability of electronic circuit boards and electronic devices of console of drilling units are investigated. This new analytical method confirms modification of electronic device dynamic behaviour which installed in console of drilling unit. It is in agreement with experimental results which show electronic circuit board failure in driller console when dynamic loading is considerably less than values required to affect the board when board itself , lonely, is under vibration test.
Majority of failures of electronic equipment, instruments, sensors and sensitive devices are mechanical in nature. Typical failures caused by break, crack and creep. It is often quite difficult to determine main cause of malfunction and failure. Dynamic and vibration loads caused very large percent of sensitive equipment failures which installed in dynamic environment. Vibration failures are often difficult to trace. Usually resonance situations and coupling effects are involved. Sometimes it does not appear to be any connection between failed parts and vibration loadings.
The dynamic behaviour of electronic and electric device is a subject that has received considerable attention due to its technical importance. Analysis of electric / electronic devices or circuit boards under dynamic loading was presented previously. But only a limited number of contributions have been published on counteraction effects of complex systems (in this case drilling unit) and these devices. New analytical formulations to study modified dynamic behaviour of sensitive devices in a complex system (drilling unit) is presented. When a circuit board or electronic device is installed in a driller console, there will be complicated interactions between its dynamic characteristics and drilling unit dynamic behaviour. There are different dynamic responses and consequently much more possibilities of resonance. Electronic devices and electronic circuit boards are vulnerable against dynamic loading. For example for a drilling unit revamp project, vibration tests were conducted on electronic circuit board in a broad frequency range and with high vibration amplitudes. Tests were repeated however no damage was observed. During drilling unit site performance test, failure of electronic circuit board was occurred because of mechanical damage. The dynamic loading amplitude was considerably less than amplitude in vibration tests. Extensive investigation shows that failure was only due to modified dynamic behaviour of system.
Thirty years ago, specifying an enclosure involved three steps: ordering the appropriately sized gray box, installing sensitive electronic equipment and hoping the enclosure would withstand its surroundings.
What is Conformal Coating and why is it important in Industrial Ethernet switches?
In mission critical and harsh environments like where most Industrial hardened Ethernet switches are deployed, conformal coating acts as protection against moisture, dust, chemicals, and temperature extremes that if non-protected could result in a complete failure of the electronic system. These applications include mining, metal industries, oil & gas, military applications, chemical processing and food and beverage industries. For additional protection to address the demands of the environmental conditions, Ethernet Direct offers state-of-the art conformal coating on Industrial Ethernet switches that meets MIL-I-46058C standardEthernet networks will expand in time.
Conformal coatings encapsulate circuit boards and their electronic components in order to prevent the ingress of moisture, fungus, dust and other environmental contaminants. After the coating is made on the switches, it provides environmental and mechanical protection to significantly extend the life of the components and circuitry to meet the challenges in severe industrial environments.
Based on the increasing demands in various industries, customers' are deploying conformal coatings with expectations to increase the performance of the switch, ease of application, sustainability, quality, functionality, and environmental properties. All of the above expectations require special attention and procedure carried out by Ethernet Direct when manufacturing even single Industrial Ethernet switch in order to ensure that all conformal coated designed switches meet the expected standards. Ethernet Direct continuously to improve the environmental performance and offers conformal coatings Industrial Ethernet switches to enhance more specific demands in industrial applications.
A product may suffer from degraded life and accuracy if the PCB surface comes in contact with ionic substances, making it contaminated. The ionic substances can be in the form of fingerprint or humidity. Having applied conformal coating effectively reduces the effects of mechanical stress, vibrations or temperature changes when an Industrial Ethernet switch could be installed.
This white paper examines the benefits of variable-frequency drives (VFDs) and special considerations that must be given to their design, installation and operation. The paper also reviews and evaluates the various cable types typically used in VFD systems and conditions affecting their performance such as radiated and common-mode noise.
Although modern fieldbus transmitters have been improved compared to older transmitter models, that does not eliminate the need for calibration. Learn more about how a multi-functional calibrator can reduce time and money spent during commissioning and maintenance in a fieldbus installation.
More than 30 years ago, the Dow Chemical Co. embarked on what ultimately evolved into a global corporate initiative: to develop and broadly leverage a standardized, highly integrated process automation system, incorporating basic process control, process information and safety system functionality.
IEEE 802.11 wireless technology is being deployed rapidly in many industrial plants as the security and bandwidth of these products have improved. The need to gather data from and provide data to equipment and employees moving around a facility is one of the primary applications for these wireless devices. Configuring wireless networks requires careful planning to insure that the network will function as required without causing problems with adjacent installations. This white paper provides a starting point for your wireless design.
Many automation engineers are coming face to face with real fieldbus applications for the first time. Fieldbus is a technology with many benefits, but its installation requires considerations over and above normal 420mA projects. In this article, we will discuss some of those issues and show you how to deal with them.
White Paper FCI's flow meter best practices white paper provides installation recommendations to avoid common performance problems caused by variations in real-world plant operating conditions versus the laboratory conditions utilized in meter calibration. This paper includes specifications and diagrams to solve problems including lack of pipe straight-run, installation orientation and probe depth.
In the last few years, the cost of energy has increased many fold, this has made the measurement and management of energy a key area of activity in the industry. As the demand of energy increases world wide, the pressure on resources increases and this leads to the increase in costs. It is a simple issue of demand and supply. Even the environment is under threat due to increased release of greenhouse gasses. In the modern competitive world, tangible costs must be reduced and efficiency optimized to be competitive. Even at the recently G8, targets were set at reducing the emissions released through burning of fuels. It is amazing how we can achieve both goals of lower costs through better efficiency and lower emissions through better energy management.
This paper comments on possible ways to manage energy in a processing plant. More specifically we will concentrate on better energy measurement and increasing efficiency through benchmarking and information management. The author will also offer practical ways to reduce operational costs with small capital expenditure and thus a fast ROI.
Jason Pennington, Madhukar Puniani & Stefan Woehrle. Endress+Hauser
Electromagnetic flowmeters, also known as mag meters, are popular and proven devices for flow measurement of electrically conductive process fluids and for volumetric filling machine applications. Of prime importance to a mag meters accuracy and long term performance is the condition of the metering section of the flow sensor.
Unlike in most processes, mag meters in filling machine applications are frequently subject to widely varying conditions during normal operation. As a result, they are viable candidates for evaluating their long term performance in an accelerated use environment. Therefore PTB, a German research and approvals agency, in association with KROHNE, undertook an extensive project to study the long term measurement stability of mag meters in filling machine applications.
Dipl.-Ing. F. Hofmann and Dipl.-Ing. B. Schumacher, Krohne Messtechnik GmbH Co KG Duisburg, Germany
State Based Control is a plant automation control design based on the principle that all process facilities operate in recognized, definable Process States that represent a variety of normal and abnormal conditions of the process. State Based Control, implemented with the latest developments in object-based technologies, delivers direct benefits to its adopters in a variety of Operational Excellence categories. It results in productivity increases, higher asset utilization of both people and process, automated responses and recovery for abnormal conditions and provides an environment for knowledge capture directly into the control design.
Ceramic pressure transmitters have proven to outperform standard metallic diaphragm transmitters in very demanding applications. Find out why in this white paper from Endress+Hauser that demonstrates the advantages of ceramic sensors, especially in vacuum and chemical service. See why the enhanced stability and lower maintenance of ceramic pressure sensors improve productivity, quality and the bottom line.
Fieldlevel wiring used to be very simple. A sensor was either powered or passive. But when networking PLCs and PACs into the control system network became both practical and popular, engineers started thinking about how to provide power over the same set of wires as the network connection. This white paper discusses how Power over the Ethernet is fast becoming the standard.
The use of Ceraphire pressure sensors may help plant operations and maintenance personnel realize optimum process performance and stability in process applications by identifying advantages that come with selecting ceramic pressure measuring cells. This white paper helps identify and demonstrate the inherent problems of using metal diaphragm pressure cells, particularly in vacuum and chemical service. It also brings awareness of enhanced performance and stability in pressure measurement to plant maintenance, quality assurance and operations personnel in order to improve their operations and the bottom line.
How do I measure temperature? How accurate is my measurement? What temperature range is required? What type of device best measures temperature? Does my instrument require certification? These are common questions when confronted with the need to measure temperature. This paper focuses on electronic temperature measurements and helps clarify the answers to some of these nagging questions.
One of the most widely used tools for comparing the reliability of industrial DC power supplies is MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures). Demonstrating the MTBF through actual field or experimental test data makes the calculated MTBF more plausible.
Whether you process chemicals, refine petroleum, generate power, produce paper or metals, you must continuously refine and optimize operations to deliver quality products at competitive prices. Wireless technologies can be used to monitor and automate many industrial processes for competitive advantage.
Conductivity measurement is an easily performed measurement technique for determining and monitoring the total salt concentration in water. It is encountered in many areas of industrial and environmental analysis. Whether it concerns cleaning the filling lines in a dairy, or protection of the cooling water system in a power station, the correct procedures always depend on the conductivity value.
As a manufacturer of measuring systems (transmitter/controllers and sensors) for resistance/conductivity and pH measurement, we are confronted almost every day with the uncertainty prevailing among customers, end users and project planners when it comes to the proper measurement techniques and equipment for high-purity water.
This booklet provides assistance and information in this field. It is intended to give you a generally understandable background and explanation of the fundamental terminology used in high-purity water measurement, and thus contribute to demystifying the subject. Furthermore, it also presents the procedure that is generally valid for calibrating and testing a high-purity water measuring system, and is currently still firmly based on the American regulations (USP/ASTM).