Across various industries, the performance of a flow measurement device is ultimately dependent upon the proper functioning of its sensors or other signal producing elements, which have an active relationship with the flowing fluid.
Application savvy is worth more than only products. In this third installment of Control's special report on mass flow and density measurement sponsored by Micro Motion, the applications are the stars. Check out the videos and other links that take you to far more information than we can fit onto a page.
Instruments designed to measure flow, level, pressure, temperature and other variables in hazardous locations are generally used to monitor and control the process. Because many instruments are calibrated in the field, it is fortunate that there are calibrators that are specifically designed to operate safely in rugged environments and hazardous locations.
Calibration helps a power plant in maintaining or even improving safety, as well as in meeting national and international standards. However, calibration is also a matter of profitability. By using high-accuracy calibration equipment, the accuracy of vital measurements can be maintained on a required level and the plant can increase its annual power production capability.
Equipment designers frequently must incorporate miniature solenoid valves into their pneumatic designs. These valves are important components of medical devices and instrumentation as well as environmental, analytical, and similar product applications. However, all too often, designers find themselves frustrated. They face compromise after compromise. Pressure for increasingly miniaturized devices complicates every step of the design and valve selection process. And missteps can wreak havoc. How do designers balance the needs for reliability, extended service life, and standards compliance against often-contradictory performance requirements such as light weight, high flow, and optimum power use?
This report consolidates the expert views of designers and manufacturers with wide experience applying miniature solenoid valves for myriad uses across multiple industries. It presents a true insider's guide to which requirements are critical for common applications. It also highlights new valve technologies that may lessen or eliminate those troubling compromises.
NFPA-79 is the electrical standard that has been developed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and is "intended to minimize the potential hazard of electrical shock and electrical fire hazards of industrial metalworking machine tools, woodworking machinery, plastics machinery and mass produced equipment, not portable by hand."
The National Fire Protection Association is also responsible for the National Electric Code (NEC)/ (NFPA-70).
The scope of NFPA-79 is summarized as follows: "The standard shall apply to the electrical/electronic equipment, apparatus, or systems of industrial machines operating from a nominal voltage of 600 volts or less, and commencing at the point of connection of the supply to the electrical equipment to the machine."
One of the focuses of the latest edition is to improve product safety by ensuring that appropriate types of wire and cable are used in the application with regard to current carrying capacity, temperature rating, or flammability.
As such, the guidelines for NFPA-79 compliant products are more stringent than those cables allowed by past editions.
The NFPA-79 provisions make specific reference to only two types of cable.
In many analytical instrumentation systems, the analyzer does not provide an absolute measurement. Rather, it provides a relative response based on settings established during calibration, which is a critical process subject to significant error. To calibrate an analyzer, a calibration fluid of known contents and quantities is passed through the analyzer, producing measurements of component concentration. If these measurements are not consistent with the known quantities in the calibration fluid, the analyzer is adjusted accordingly. Later, when process samples are analyzed, the accuracy of the analyzer's reading will depend on the accuracy of the calibration process. It is therefore, imperative, that we understand how error or contamination can be introduced through calibration; when calibration can - and cannot - address a perceived performance issue with the analyzer; how atmospheric pressure or temperature fluctuations can undo the work of calibration; and when and when not to calibrate.
Calibration can be briefly described as an activity where the instrument being tested is compared to a known reference value. At the simplest level, calibration is a comparison between measurements. Calibration is often required with a new instrument or when a specified time period or a specified number of operating hours has elapsed. Neglecting calibration can lead to unscheduled production or machine downtime, product and process quality issues or even product recalls and rework.
When it comes to accurately measuring the flow of liquid or gas, your flowmeter is only as accurate as the equipment it is calibrated on. And in the age of ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 17025, ANSI Z540 and other strict quality standards, this fact is becoming increasingly important.
Test and measurement applications depend on repeatable flow measurements, which provide performance criteria of the instrument being tested.
These devices often play a critical role on aircraft, placing greater demand on accurate flow test measurement for fuel consumption or hydraulic actuator controls.
Industrial operations live and die by the repeatability of process conditions. It is not enough for an individual flow-metering instrument to perform in a consistent manner, day in and day out; measurements must also be replicated. Multiple devices running on the same process-in different physical locations-must perform the same under identical conditions. This is only achieved through repeatable calibration equipment traceability to government metrology laboratories such as NIST.
For industrial operations, inaccurate flowmeter calibrations can have a serious impact on plant performance, ultimately resulting in poor yields or compromised quality. Therefore, periodic flowmeter calibration must be part of the user's quality process.
Mubeen Almoustafa, Calibration Application Engineer, Flow Dynamics. Inc.
The field instrumentation in process plants is beginning to come under more sophisticated metrological discipline. Most new field instruments are now smart digital instruments. One popular digital protocol is the HART (Highway Automated Remote Transducer) protocol, which shares characteristics of both analog and digital control systems.
This white paper talks about the maintenance and calibration of HART field instruments. To properly service these instruments, precision analog source/measure capability and digital communication are both required. In the past, this operation required two separate tools-a calibrator and a communicator. Now these capabilities are available in one HART documenting process calibrator. Download this white paper to learn more.
Vibration is a characteristic of virtually all industrial machines. When vibration increases beyond normal levels, it may indicate only normal wear, it may signal the need for further assessment of the underlying causes, or for immediate maintenance action. But how can the plant maintenance professional tell the difference between acceptable, normal vibration and the kind of vibration that requires immediate attention to service or replace troubled equipment? Download this white paper and learn how to tell this difference.
Customers in all industries are coming more and more under pressure to measure the cost of their utilities. Important drivers for this pressure are the rising cost of energy and various certifications according to EMAS and the ISO 14000 series. Measuring utilities has been neglected in the past and using calibrated technology is necessary for this process. However, many companies only measure their utility consumption at the custody transfer point, and these few measuring occurrences leave room for inaccuracy and poor energy management. By investing money in efficient measuring tools, is possible to set up energy monitoring systems that measure the consumption of each respective utility close to the point of use. This white paper reviews processes that can help you attain better energy management. Download now to learn more.
Infrared thermometers let you measure a target's surface temperature from a distance without physically touching it. This white paper shows you how to make those measurements in a repeatable and accurate way. If you have questions about emissivity, scatter, blackbodies and other infrared temperature measurement concepts then you'll want to read this guide.
» Download this white paper if you need to know how to calibrate infrared thermometers.
One of the benefits using a documenting calibrator is to be able to determine how accurate an instrument or sensor is. However, many times in the calibration process, documentation is a step that process manufacturers skip because they lack the resources and the time to do so. Although most instruments are very accurate these days, regulatory bodies often need to know just how inaccurate a particular instrument is and whether it drifts in and out of a specified tolerance over time. Download this white paper and learn how using a documenting calibrator can can help cut down costs and time, minimize manual errors while improving efficiency, accuracy and quality in the calibration process.
Although modern fieldbus transmitters have been improved compared to older transmitter models, that does not eliminate the need for calibration. Learn more about how a multi-functional calibrator can reduce time and money spent during commissioning and maintenance in a fieldbus installation.
Editor in chief Walt Boyes reports and interprets Controls latest readership survey. This time we asked our readers about their understanding and usage practices concerning safety instrumented systems. Safety is one of the most important issues facing the process industries, especially as retirement takes much of the institutional knowledge and experience from plants worldwide.
A Complete Precision Pressure Measurement Handbook Covering the Fundamentals of Pressure Measurement, Deadweight Pressure Testers, Calibration of Deadweight Testers, AMETEK's Deadweight Testers, Manometers, Secondary Comparison Pressure Standards and the Selection of a Pressure Measurement Standard.
FCIs flow meter best practices white paper provides installation recommendations to avoid common performance problems caused by variations in real-world plant operating conditions versus the laboratory conditions utilized in meter calibration. This paper includes specifications and diagrams to solve problems including lack of pipe straight-run, installation orientation and probe depth.
This white paper/case study documents the rationale and steps for deploying a modular sample handling system solution in a moisture-sensitive process, from concept through commissioning and operational performance.