White Papers

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  • Alarm and Event Analysis for Batch Process Improvement

    Alarm and event analysis has long been used for improving process operation. However since alarms are usually generated and displayed based on physical equipment, alarm analysis has been difficult to perform on a batch basis. In this paper, we focus on the interrelation of alarm/message notification and operator reaction in a batch process and analyze them systematically according to S88.01 Models and Terminology. Balance patterns of alarm/message notification and operator reactions are visually analyzed. Batch based analysis is done by grouping and filtering alarm and event data by master recipe, procedural hierarchy, and batch unit. This makes it easy to find and improve spurious alarms and inefficient operator habits. In a brief experience in a pharmaceutical plant, spurious alarms have been reduced by approximately 30% and smoother operation procedures have been implemented.

    Yoshitaka Yuki, Manager, Yokogawa Corporation of America; Jim Parks, Instrument Engineer, Lonza Inc.
    08/28/2008
  • Personnel Tracking in Citect

    Personnel safety in heavy industries such as metals, mining and mineral processing is of paramount priority. This paper discusses the value proposition of having Citect possess the ability to deliver in real time, information about personnel that are present at or around the process that is currently being viewed on screen. Although the main driver is around safety, there are also potential benefits from a maintenance and support perspective.

    Yong, The National Account Manager, Citect
    06/12/2008
  • Achieving 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance Using CENTUM VP

    This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

    CENTUM VP Batch Management is the optional Batch control function for CENTUM VP, which provides recipe management and process management functionality based upon the ISA-88 Batch Control System standard. This whitepaper addresses the use of CENTUM VP and the Batch Management function.

    A detailed analysis of Part 11 was performed, the results of which are listed in the Detailed Part 11 Compliance section (section 5) of this document, which supports the compliance of the CENTUM VP system to Part 11.

    CENTUM VP is a comprehensive software package containing configurable functions that support Part 11 compliance (audit trails, electronic signatures and electronic records). The system capitalizes on its Part 11 compliance attributes in the marketing strategy of supplying FDA regulated industries with state of the art automation capabilities.

    User training and education as well as the development and utilization of policies and procedures are key components of Part 11 compliance which must be established by the user.

    Yokogawa
    04/15/2010
  • Wireless Technology in Industrial Automation

    The use of wireless technology in industrial automation systems offers a number of potential benefits, from the obvious cost reduction brought about by the elimination of wiring to the availability of better plant information, improved productivity and better asset management.

    Yokogawa
    05/15/2013
  • Harness the Future of Innovation

    From the company's pledge to renew and improve its partnership with customers to how to migrating a DCS 1,600 feet below ground, the Yokogawa Users Conference and Exhibition in Houston covered emerging technologies and trends in process control engineering, management and implementations, as well as the year's new releases and upgrades in the company's extensive product lines. Here's what happened, in a series of first-hand accounts by Control's seasoned editorial staff.

    Yokogawa
    10/28/2014
  • Monitoring Mercury Control Using ORP

    Download this white paper and learn about the monitoring requirements and how an ORP sensor can be used to make the measurements.

    Yokogawa
    02/11/2015
  • Understanding the Concepts Behind Short Circuit Current Ratings (SCCR)

    The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.

    The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.

    Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.

    The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.

    Yaskawa Electric America
    05/17/2010
  • Learn How an AC VFD Works to Better Understand Its Efficiencies

    This white paper will describe how and why an AC variable–frequency drive must simultaneously control output frequency and voltage to efficiently control the speed of a three–phase induction motor. Highly educational and practical.

    Yaskawa Electric
    05/13/2009
  • Why buy industrial computers?

    Industrial personal computer (IPC) technology is used in ever increasing volume in the manufacturing environment. This White Paper provides a report for OEMs and manufacturers who use computers in their manufacturing equipment and processes.

    Xycom Automation
    08/01/2005
  • Statistical process monitoring of industrial batch processes

    This White Paper summarizes the findings from three case studies involving the application of multivariate statistics to batch processes, and provides a comparison of different approaches to monitoring batch process operations.

    World Batch Forum
    06/13/2005
  • Human Factors: Planning & Design of a Control Room

    The emergence of new technologies, new ergonomic standards and increased public awareness of workplace health issues have combined to inspire a dramatic shift in console design. Today's control workstations are smaller, more functional and more aesthetically appealing than earlier generations. Download this informational package to learn more.

    Winsted
    02/22/2013
  • Control and Automation Maturity Models in Brewing

    How do we choose the correct level of automation for a specific process area within the production facility? How does that facility drive a migration of its control systems to meet increasing business requirements while taking into account very real constraints around skills levels, existing equipment configuration and materials availability? These are very real questions confronting all of us today irrespective of how basic or advanced our manufacturing facilities are. This paper will present the concept of simple maturity models with regard to manufacturing control systems. It will illustrate the use of the concept through the typical stages of brewing control system complexity found within a brewing process area – from the completely manual to the fully automated configurations. It will further explore the typical business drivers which would require the move from one level to the next as well as the impacted factors to be addressed when driving a migration of the control system. Relevant international standards like S95 and S88 will also be put into context as helpful models and terminology in support of the business needs of SABMiller.

    Willie Lotz, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Ins and Outs of Partial Stroke Testing

    Depending on the Equipment, Application, and Test Method, You May Be Able to Extend the Full Test Intervals for SIS Valves. This article is written by William L. (Bill) Mostia Jr., PE, of Exida, League City, Texas. Mostia has more than 25 years experience applying safety, instrumentation, and control systems in process facilities. He may be reached at wmostia@exida.com.

    Partial Stroke Testing Article

    William Mostia
    08/05/2001
  • Integrating Shop-Floor Systems with SAP R/3 PP and PP-PI Modules – Some Recent Project Experience

    Business drivers to improve performance, such as supply chain performance and operational effectiveness, require that integration of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and shop-floor systems is considered. Many manufacturing companies have implemented the SAP R/3 ERP system, supporting core business processes including financials, sales, distribution and so on. The manufacturing processes may be controlled by a combination of automatic control equipment and human operators. SAP R/3 supports production planning functionality in its PP (standard production planning) module and sub-modules PP-PI (production planning for the process industries), PP-REP (repetitive manufacturing) and PP-Kanban. These modules support the exchange of data with external systems. However, the technology issues associated with such data exchange are part of a broader set of challenges that an integration project must address if the intended business benefits are to be obtained. This paper examines a business-driven approach to integration and explores recent project experience integrating shop-floor systems with the PP and PP-PI modules.

    Willem Dekkers, Senior Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; David Faustino, Consultant, SAP Integrated Manufacturing; Peter Hopkinson, Principal Consultant, ERP & Extended Services
    08/28/2008
  • Process Control Domain - Security Requirements for Vendors

    This document specifies requirements and gives recommendations for IT security to be fulfilled by vendors of process control and automation systems to be used in Process Control Domains (PCDs).

    This covers both:
    - Policy; addressing the vendor's organization, IT security processes, technological solutions and governance of IT security.
    - Commissioning and maintenance

    When a vendor's solution complies with this set of requirements, the solution is considered by the WIB to be PCD Security Compatible.

    Download this paper to learn more.

    WIB
    04/07/2010
  • Optimal temperature sensor selection

    There's no simple solution to achieving accurate temperature measurement. It’s a combination of knowing the inherent accuracy of particular sensor types, but also how environmental factors can create further measurement uncertainty and the sensor calibration techniques available to reduce this uncertainty.

    Watlow Electric
    08/03/2005
  • Thermal anchors improve temperature uniformity

    This white paper supports the case for the use of a thermal anchor for temperature uniformity over a range of temperatures, which can dramatically reduce design and development time while actually improving thermal performance in the process.

    Watlow
    04/04/2007
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