White Papers

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  • The Evolution of Smart Manufacturing

    Industry professionals have been trying to achieve safe, smart, responsible, sustainable manufacturing for at least the past 20 years, but why have they failed?

    There are serious challenges to overcome in order to achieve smart manufacturing. Some of the challenges include economic instability, changing workforce, the need for greater than incremental increases in productivity, pressures to minimize environmental impacts and an increased focus on safety and risks of accident.

    Manufacturing ought to be safe, because working safely is more profitable and more economical. Manufacturing ought to be smart. The data that is being continuously generated by smart machines and transmitters must be translated into actionable information. Manufacturing ought to be responsible. Manufacturing ought to be sustainable. Energy and waste reduction savings go straight to the bottom line.

    So what is smart manufacturing, and how do we get there? Download this presentation and find out how Walt Boyes defines smart manufacturing and what suggestions he gives to get there.

    Walt Boyes
    06/24/2010
  • Transient Surges and Surge Suppressor Technologies: Comparing Apples to Oranges

    The suppressor to protect a specific point upon an electrical distribution system must be selected accordingly to its physical location.

    The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these overvoltages are generated by lightning activity or are induced upon the AC power lines by utility grid switching, power factor correction actions, power cycling of inductive loads, or from other sources. A quality surge suppressor must limit transient overvoltages to values that do not surpass the AC sine wave peak by more than 30% as it initially absorbs intense amounts of transient energy. The suppressor must immediately respond to transients before they reach their uppermost voltage values. Suppressor performance should not deviate or degrade with use when called upon to divert extreme levels of transient current.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Internet Access in a Process Control Environment

    Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether it's from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Today's PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics. With the latest PLC technology, almost anything that can be accomplished next to the machine can be accomplished wherever there is an Internet connection.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Industrial Ethernet… more than just another fieldbus system

    This whitepaper talks about how today Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform basic task and so much more.

    As Ethernet continues to gain momentum in the industrial automation market, it's changing the way control engineers utilize their fieldbus systems. In the past, fieldbus networks were considered one-dimensional - they performed one task and did it very well - transferring process data between networked devices in a fast and deterministic manner. Usually these devices were on a local segment, isolated from higher-level networks. Nowadays, Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform this basic task and so much more. With industrial protocols like Modbus/TCP, EtherNet/IP, and PROFInet process data is sent over standard, off-the-shelf Ethernet hardware. No longer are users forced to buy proprietary fieldbus components from a handful of vendors.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Things Go Better with S88: A New Approach to the Engineering Process

    Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design. This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.

    Vince Miller, Automation Services Director, BE&K Engineering
    08/26/2008
  • Radioactive Isotopes in Process Measurement

    An Objective Look at the Roles of Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60 in Nuclear Measurement Systems for Industrial Processes

    Level and density measurements in process control are performed by a number of technologies. When the process temperature, pressure, or chemistry is an issue, then nuclear measurement systems have the advantage. These are non-invasive to the vessel and unaffected by the process pressures and chemistries.

    Overall, a nuclear measurement system used for process control consists of a gamma energy emitter and detector. An emitter is placed on one side of a vessel to broadcast a beam of energy to the opposite side of the vessel. The detector is placed in the beam on the opposite side of the vessel. The detector will scintillate in the presence of gamma energy and register counts proportional to the field strength. When the process value (level or specific gravity) is low, the detector will register a high number of counts since less gamma energy is blocked by the process material. When the process value is high, more of the gamma energy is blocked which leads to fewer counts.

    The two most common gamma emitters used for level and density process measurements are isotopes of cobalt and cesium. The goal of this article is an objective comparison of the roles of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 in process measurement. This will be accomplished by reviewing the properties of the two materials and then comparing the use of the materials in process measurement.

    Vega Americas Inc.
    11/05/2012
  • Batch Modeling in Pharma Industry: The Role of the Engineering Company

    The S88.01 rule is today a well accepted standard all over the world: all qualified engineers involved in the design of a batch control system are getting familiar with the terminology and models therein described. The focus is now on the implementation. As a matter of fact, the S88.01 standard is not a prescriptive guideline. This means that engineers must define, for each project, which documents are to be produced, by whom and with which formalisms.

    Valerio Sala
    06/23/2008
  • The pros and cons of alarm management projects

    Although a lot of alarm management projects start and fail due to poor understanding of the scope of the probelm, lack of resources or money, loss of momentum, and no identifiable return on investment, the real key to success is to establish responsibility.

    User Centered Design Services
    05/10/2005
  • Control systems cyber security awareness

    This White Paper is the first installment in a series intended to provide relevant cyber security information to the control systems community. It raises cyber security awareness through discussion of control system cyber security trends and provides information on Homeland Security and federal partner programs designed to enhance the cyber security posture of control systems within critical infrastructures.

    US-CERT
    07/10/2006
  • Suppressing nuisance alarms

    This White Paper outlines the requirements for an alarm management system, provides a detailed description of the intelligent alarm management system, and offers results and conclusions for the improvement in nuisance alarm suppression.

    University of Singapore
    12/15/2005
  • The Characteristics of PID controllers

    This tutorial presented by the University of Michigan's School of Engineering will show you the characteristics of proportional (P), integral (I), and derivative (D) controls, and how to use them to obtain a desired response.

    University of Michigan
    12/07/2005
  • Unraveling the complexities of level detection

    Sensing options enable users to choose the sensor most appropriate per application. However, making this choice is not often easy. This paper helps unravel the complexities and differences between sensor types and applications in which they are used.

    Turck
    05/23/2006
  • Types of Pressure: When and Why Are They Used

    Without measurement there is no control. As with any type of measurement, results need to be expressed in a defined and clear way to allow everyone to interpret and apply those results correctly. Accurate measurements and good measurement practices are essential in industrial automation and process environments, as they have a direct effect on the success of the desired outcome. Pressure, the measure of a force on a specified area, is a straightforward concept, however, depending on the application, there are many different ways of interpreting the force measurement. This white paper will identify the various units of pressure measurement, while discussing when and why certain pressure measurements are used in specific applications.

    Turck
    07/10/2013
  • Choosing the Optimal Pressure Sensor

    This white paper identifies different types pressure measurement devices and discusses when and why certain types are used in specific applications.

    Turck
    08/21/2014
  • Tray Cables, a Practical Introduction

    The purpose of this article is to improve the understanding of tray cables by defining them, describing the five different types of tray cables and providing accepted uses and standards, including environmental considerations, for each of those types.

    Turck
    09/24/2014
  • Batch Manufacturing in the Biopharmaceutical Environment

    The operations and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals is a complex process combining the capabilities of multiple systems that extend the boundaries of batch processing. The Manufacturing Execution System (MES) receives information from the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and creates the necessary production orders, maintains material tracking/genealogy and coordinates key manual activities. The automated batch control system sequences the phases, controls the devices and captures the necessary history. These systems come together in the operation of Biopharmaceutical production plants, which require a very specific architecture that leverages standard batch products that are tightly integrated with MES capabilities. This is driven by the upstream and downstream processing specifications of such plants, the detailed compliance requirements and the benefits achieved in maximizing automated functionality. This paper explores the unique requirements of batch manufacturing in the biopharmaceutical environment.

    Torsten Winkler, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Top Five Missed Opportunities with HMI Alarms and Events

    With any new tech device, whether a cell phone or plant-floor controller, there is inevitably a helpful feature or two you overlooked while reading the manual or taking the introductory tutorial. Although these technological devices still perform their desired, basic functions - discovering an underutilized feature makes you wonder how you ever operated the device without it.

    Interacting with alarms is one of the basic functions your operators expect from their human-machine interface (HMI) software. However, if you're only using the standard alarming functions, you may be missing out on lesser-known features that could help you save time, ease troubleshooting and reduce headaches. The five FactoryTalk Alarms and Events functions listed below are often overlooked and underutilized. See where they fit and if you can find some hidden tools in your plant-floor applications.

    Tony Carrara, Rockwell Automation
    08/29/2012
  • Emerging Trends In The Petrochemical Industry

    Changing market conditions are forcing batch-manufacturing facilities to modify the way they conduct business. The demand for software and hardware vendors to provide a higher level of batch automation is increasing. This demand is being fueled by a shortage of knowledge-workers coupled with the demand for flexible manufacturing environments. Industry standards for software and batch-control are emerging rapidly. These standards are helping to improve the interconnectivity of many products. E-commerce will be the area for growth during this decade. Many companies are already buying and selling products through business-to-business portals on the Internet. The ability for a company to respond to ever changing manufacturing demands will determine their success or failure in the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these business trends along with the impact of new standards on the batch industry. The paper describes several examples of companies that have been able to leverage infrastructure investments while successfully applying these emerging standards.

    Tom Hosea, Batch Applications Specialist, OSI Software Inc.
    08/26/2008
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