White Papers

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  • Why Is Safety So Hard?

    Control editor Walt Boyes speaks to the TÜV Safety Symposium in Cologne. Read a transcript of his speech, "Warum Ist Sicherheit So Schwer?/Why Is Safety so HARD?

    Walt Boyes
    09/02/2008
  • The Evolution of Smart Manufacturing

    Industry professionals have been trying to achieve safe, smart, responsible, sustainable manufacturing for at least the past 20 years, but why have they failed?

    There are serious challenges to overcome in order to achieve smart manufacturing. Some of the challenges include economic instability, changing workforce, the need for greater than incremental increases in productivity, pressures to minimize environmental impacts and an increased focus on safety and risks of accident.

    Manufacturing ought to be safe, because working safely is more profitable and more economical. Manufacturing ought to be smart. The data that is being continuously generated by smart machines and transmitters must be translated into actionable information. Manufacturing ought to be responsible. Manufacturing ought to be sustainable. Energy and waste reduction savings go straight to the bottom line.

    So what is smart manufacturing, and how do we get there? Download this presentation and find out how Walt Boyes defines smart manufacturing and what suggestions he gives to get there.

    Walt Boyes
    06/24/2010
  • Transient Surges and Surge Suppressor Technologies: Comparing Apples to Oranges

    The suppressor to protect a specific point upon an electrical distribution system must be selected accordingly to its physical location.

    The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these overvoltages are generated by lightning activity or are induced upon the AC power lines by utility grid switching, power factor correction actions, power cycling of inductive loads, or from other sources. A quality surge suppressor must limit transient overvoltages to values that do not surpass the AC sine wave peak by more than 30% as it initially absorbs intense amounts of transient energy. The suppressor must immediately respond to transients before they reach their uppermost voltage values. Suppressor performance should not deviate or degrade with use when called upon to divert extreme levels of transient current.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Internet Access in a Process Control Environment

    Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether it's from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Today's PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics. With the latest PLC technology, almost anything that can be accomplished next to the machine can be accomplished wherever there is an Internet connection.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Industrial Ethernet… more than just another fieldbus system

    This whitepaper talks about how today Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform basic task and so much more.

    As Ethernet continues to gain momentum in the industrial automation market, it's changing the way control engineers utilize their fieldbus systems. In the past, fieldbus networks were considered one-dimensional - they performed one task and did it very well - transferring process data between networked devices in a fast and deterministic manner. Usually these devices were on a local segment, isolated from higher-level networks. Nowadays, Ethernet-based fieldbus systems perform this basic task and so much more. With industrial protocols like Modbus/TCP, EtherNet/IP, and PROFInet process data is sent over standard, off-the-shelf Ethernet hardware. No longer are users forced to buy proprietary fieldbus components from a handful of vendors.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Internet Access in a Process Control Environment

    Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether it’s from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Today’s PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics. With the latest PLC technology, almost anything that can be accomplished next to the machine can be accomplished wherever there is an Internet connection.

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Solve Your Tough Wiring Problems

    This toolkit comes with everything you need to eliminate the environmental effects on wiring, such as temperature cycling, vibration and corrosion, as well as in cabinet challenges related to space restrictions, circuit identification, power distribution and more.

    Wago
    05/21/2012
  • Hazardous Locations Safety Handbook

    This BLH handbook is intended to educate the user regarding the proper selection ofelectronic weighing systems used in hazardous locations. This document does not cover the installation of equipment as this is typically the responsibility of the installing electrician and/ or engineering design firm. Information contained herein has been compiled from a number of published sources and condensed to cover the subject as related to electronic weighing equipment only.

    The stated purpose of the (NEC) code is 'the practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity'. Articles 500 through 517 of the code cover the installation of electrical equipment in locations where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapors, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibers

    The classification of hazardous areas is dependent upon the properties of various hazardous materials and the likelihood of their presence.

    The auto ignition temperature (AIT) of a hazard is a consideration when specifying equipment. A system of marking the external surface temperature of equipment for hazardous areas exists to identify suitability for a particular application. The following chart lists the temperature ranges for the various ratings. NFPA standard 497M provides information of the ignition temperatures for Class I and Class II materials.

    Download this guide to safe electronic weighing in hazardous locations. Get information on calibration methods and procedures too.

    Vishay Precision Group
    12/05/2011
  • Industrial Weighing Systems Handbook, 3rd Edition

    The BLH Industrial Weighing Systems Handbook has been a primary reference since its first printing in 1967. This third edition presents vital information on weighing system performance, design and implementation tools.

    Vishay
    04/29/2013
  • Things Go Better with S88: A New Approach to the Engineering Process

    Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design. This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.

    Vince Miller, Automation Services Director, BE&K Engineering
    08/26/2008
  • Radioactive Isotopes in Process Measurement

    An Objective Look at the Roles of Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60 in Nuclear Measurement Systems for Industrial Processes

    Level and density measurements in process control are performed by a number of technologies. When the process temperature, pressure, or chemistry is an issue, then nuclear measurement systems have the advantage. These are non-invasive to the vessel and unaffected by the process pressures and chemistries.

    Overall, a nuclear measurement system used for process control consists of a gamma energy emitter and detector. An emitter is placed on one side of a vessel to broadcast a beam of energy to the opposite side of the vessel. The detector is placed in the beam on the opposite side of the vessel. The detector will scintillate in the presence of gamma energy and register counts proportional to the field strength. When the process value (level or specific gravity) is low, the detector will register a high number of counts since less gamma energy is blocked by the process material. When the process value is high, more of the gamma energy is blocked which leads to fewer counts.

    The two most common gamma emitters used for level and density process measurements are isotopes of cobalt and cesium. The goal of this article is an objective comparison of the roles of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 in process measurement. This will be accomplished by reviewing the properties of the two materials and then comparing the use of the materials in process measurement.

    Vega Americas Inc.
    11/05/2012
  • Batch Modeling in Pharma Industry: The Role of the Engineering Company

    The S88.01 rule is today a well accepted standard all over the world: all qualified engineers involved in the design of a batch control system are getting familiar with the terminology and models therein described. The focus is now on the implementation. As a matter of fact, the S88.01 standard is not a prescriptive guideline. This means that engineers must define, for each project, which documents are to be produced, by whom and with which formalisms.

    Valerio Sala
    06/23/2008
  • The pros and cons of alarm management projects

    Although a lot of alarm management projects start and fail due to poor understanding of the scope of the probelm, lack of resources or money, loss of momentum, and no identifiable return on investment, the real key to success is to establish responsibility.

    User Centered Design Services
    05/10/2005
  • Control systems cyber security awareness

    This White Paper is the first installment in a series intended to provide relevant cyber security information to the control systems community. It raises cyber security awareness through discussion of control system cyber security trends and provides information on Homeland Security and federal partner programs designed to enhance the cyber security posture of control systems within critical infrastructures.

    US-CERT
    07/10/2006
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