White Papers

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  • "Collaborate-Breakthrough-Profit:" A Myth, Minefield or Treasure Chest?

    The objective of this paper is to provide an outlook on emerging Collaborative Production Management (CPM) tools. It will discuss these CPM tools in relation to material transfers (ingredient addition) in Batch manufacturing. Illustrating what collaborative initiatives these tools are likely to support, why they are required and how they may be deployed. The concept of collaborating is an old concept, but Collaborative Production Management, and the notion of CPM tools is a relatively new manufacturing trend. One that has been revitalized by the internet and the advent of more open manufacturing systems. Today global measurement and control suppliers find they are being pushed hard by manufacturers to increase their development momentum in this emerging area of “collaborative production management tools”.

    Rodger W. Jeffery, WBF
  • 1 Gigabit Industrial Ethernet Field Network Delivers Determinism and Accommodates 10/100/1000 Mb TCP/IP Field Devices

    The continuing drive to improve productivity will encourage more automation networking. The driving factors behind this expected growth include lean working, increased traceability legislation, product lifecycle management production (PLM), and improvements in manufacturing cycle times. This requires connecting the factory floor to the corporate offices where enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems make information available backwards into the supply chain, as well as forward to customers. Simply put, everyone wants to see what's happening. As a result, networks and the information they handle are becoming as important as the industrial control functions they manage.

    This white paper describes the open CC-Link IE Field network, an Industrial Ethernet technology, which operates at 1 Gigabit/sec. This data rate is 10 times faster than other Industrial Ethernet technologies in order to provide highly responsive control system communications, while at the same time allowing connection to field devices (RFID readers, vision systems, etc.) that have TCP/IP Ethernet ports communicating at slower 10Mb or 100Mb data rates.

  • 10 Steps to Lean Electrical Controls

    Globalization is forcing companies to constantly become more efficient. To drive efficiencies, many companies are implementing Lean Manufacturing to stay competitive in this ever shrinking world.

  • 21 CFR Part 11 Compliant Recipe and Batch Management - What’s Missing?

    In this paper (and associated presentation), the requirements to manage various levels of batch recipe within the pharmaceutical and other sectors within the Life Sciences sectors industry will be discussed, as well as the requirements to maintain secure batch records, including compliance with various electronic records and electronic signatures guidance. Examples of how this can be achieved within an ERP solution (without the need for a separate MES level batch or recipe management solution) will also be discussed.

    David Stokes, WBF
  • 21 steps to improve security of SCADA networks

    The President’s Critical Infrastructure Protection Board, and the Department of Energy, have developed the steps outlined here to help any organization improve the security of its SCADA networks.

    Dept. of Energy
  • 21CFR11 Compliance and Automated Manufacturing

    21CFR11 took effect in August 1997 with little observed regulatory activity. However, that has changed and increasing numbers of FDA warning letters are being generated for software used for GMP, GCP, or GLP (GxP) purposes. This presentation addresses the impact of 21CFR11 on automated manufacturing systems and processes. Included is an overview of 21CFR11, a discussion of the processes needed to reach compliance including 21CFR11 interpretation, assessment and remediation activities, and some issues for legacy automated manufacturing systems. It will speak to the compliance issues for hybrid systems where there is a multiplicity of options between totally paper based and totally electronic systems.

    Kathleen Waters, Manager - Automation IT, Genentech Inc.
  • A Better Understanding of Power Over Ethernet for Industrial Ethernet Applications

    In the whitepaper, Ethernet Direct describes how PoE technology enables the end devices like Wireless Access Point, IP Phone, IP Camera, IP Access Control terminal, RFID reader and other IP-based appliances to get power supply from a Cat-3, Cat-5/5e or Cat-6 LAN cable without extra power connection needed.

    Ethernet Direct
  • A Blueprint for the Real Time Enterprise

    Manufacturing and production processes have had to be controlled and managed in real time from inception because they change in real time frames. This has been a natural premise of industrial systems from the very beginning.

    A major shift in the business of manufacturing has occurred over the past decade which is driving the dynamics of the business of production and manufacturing into the real time domain. Business variables, such as energy prices, feedstock prices and even product prices have rapidly transitioned from highly transactional time frames into real time frames. For example, a decade ago it was not unusual for an industrial plant to establish a contract with its energy supplier that essentially set the price over an extended time period, of often 6 months or even a year. Today, in most parts of the world, long term fixed price energy contracts are not being offered and the price of energy can change multiple times in a day. The implications of this transition are clear. Industrial business functions must operate in real time to be effective and efficient. Industrial companies that do not move to real time business operations will be at a severe disadvantage in their marketplace.

    Invensys, Peter G. MartinInvensys, Peter G. Martin
  • A Comparison of WirelessHART and ISA100.11a

    The technology advancements in measurement instruments and final control elements provide greater process insight, reduce engineering costs and contribute to improving the overall operational performance of the plant. These instruments are often collectively referred to as smart devices.

    Emerson Process Management
  • A comparison of WirelessHART and ISA100.11a

    This paper provides a brief overview of WirelessHART and ISA100.11a standards, presents key differences between the standards, and concludes with a discussion on applications and application integration.

    Mark Nixon, Emerson Process Management
  • A DuPont Batch Automation Project Experience

    When presented with the problem of having to increase capacity 25% for a $100M/yr DuPont fluorochemical business, the solution was to fully automate the bottleneck of its supply chain, a batch process. Although the process already had a DCS, it was not nearly used to the potential it could be if additional instrumentation and automation software were installed. The journey taken to complete this solution taught us a lot about how to properly run a batch automation project. Upon completion of the project, we were presented another challenge. DuPont’s largest competitor withdrew from the market dramatically increasing product demand. With no additional capital, we were able to further increase capacity another 40%.

    John W. W. Wood Jr, Technical Engineer, DuPont; Vernon F. Morenas, R&D Engineer, DuPont
  • A Hybrid 18-Pulse Rectification Scheme for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Diode rectifier with large DC bus capacitors, used in the front ends of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs), draw discontinuous current from the power system resulting in current distortion and hence voltage distortion. Typically, the power system can handle current distortion without showing signs of voltage distortion. However, when the majority of the load on a distribution feeder is made up of VFDs, current distortion becomes an important issue. Multi-pulse techniques to reduce input harmonics are popular because they do not interfere with the existing power system either from higher conducted EMI when active techniques are used or from possible resonance, when capacitor based filters are employed.

    In this paper, a new 18-pulse topology is proposed that has two six-pulse rectifiers powered via a phase-shifting isolation transformer, while the third six-pulse rectifier is fed directly from the AC source via a matching-impedance. This idea relies on harmonic current cancellation strategy rather than the flux cancellation method and results in lower overall harmonics. It is also seen to be smaller in size and weight, and lower in cost compared to an isolation transformer. Experimental results are given to validate the concept.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
  • A path forward for DCS alarm management

    Despite the recent industry focus on higher-level solutions, substantive technical challenges still abound in DCS alarm management. The reasons, importance, and solutions for the problem of alarm management are the subject of this White Paper.

    Plant Automation Services
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