White Papers

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  • Top Five Reasons to Consider Mobility in Manufacturing

    This whitepaper provides five reasons why you should consider mobility in industrial settings. It discusses how plants can provide employees with cost-effective, secure, on-demand remote access to critical information resources and suggests ways in which you can begin to build out your mobile technology base for use within manufacturing.

    Invensys
    12/06/2013
  • Tracking and Tracing on an ISA S88 Foundation

    From which supplier ingredient lots did we compose this batch? Which batches did this pallet feed? Which batches ran after it? What’s the effect of this badly performing unit on previous operations? What’s the correlation between…? These are not easy questions, too often left without an answer. In many cases we have to rely on a combination of the operator’s memory, some paper log sheets and a variety of electronic data sources. With the introduction of the ISA S88.01 standard in 1995 and the work of the SP95 committee, process industries finally receives a structured framework that extends its advantages beyond the pure process control aspects. By applying the standard, we have a basis for building in traceability as an intrinsic function of the production control system. We will focus on topics like material flow control, the process inventory, integrating quality control and non-conformity checking in the batch recipe and building product genealogy. During the presentation we will explain the methodology behind this and how leading enterprises have already successfully applied it.

    Ing. Geert Vanhove, Product Manager proCX, Compex N.V.
    08/28/2008
  • Transfer Lines As Units In An S88 Framework

    Traditional process models typically view a transfer line between Units either as a physical extension of the batching vessel or as a shared equipment module. The valves in the transfer line are then convenient places to establish the boundary of the upstream or downstream Unit.

    Todd A. Brun, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Transient Surges and Surge Suppressor Technologies: Comparing Apples to Oranges

    The suppressor to protect a specific point upon an electrical distribution system must be selected accordingly to its physical location.

    The sole function of a quality surge suppressor is to protect sensitive electronic equipment from transient overvoltages that are present on AC power circuits. It is irrelevant whether these overvoltages are generated by lightning activity or are induced upon the AC power lines by utility grid switching, power factor correction actions, power cycling of inductive loads, or from other sources. A quality surge suppressor must limit transient overvoltages to values that do not surpass the AC sine wave peak by more than 30% as it initially absorbs intense amounts of transient energy. The suppressor must immediately respond to transients before they reach their uppermost voltage values. Suppressor performance should not deviate or degrade with use when called upon to divert extreme levels of transient current.

    See More About Wago

    WAGO
    01/07/2008
  • Tray Cables, a Practical Introduction

    The purpose of this article is to improve the understanding of tray cables by defining them, describing the five different types of tray cables and providing accepted uses and standards, including environmental considerations, for each of those types.

    Turck
    09/24/2014
  • Tuning the Forgotten Loop

    We can tune PID controllers, but what about tuning the operator?

    The purpose of tuning loops is to reduce errors and thus provide more efficient operation that returns quickly to steady-state efficiency after upsets, errors or changes in load. State-of-the-art manufacturers in process and discrete industries have invested in advanced control software, manufacturing execution software and modeling software to "tune" everything from control loops to supply chains, thus driving higher quality and productivity.

    The "forgotten loop" has been the operator, who is typically trained to "average" parameters to run adequately under most steady-state conditions. "Advanced tuning" of the operator could yield even better outputs, with higher quality, fewer errors and a wider response to fluctuating operating conditions. This paper explores the issue of improving operator actions, and a method for doing so.

    Over the past decade we've spent, as an industry, billions of dollars and millions of man-hours automating our factories and plants. The solutions have included adding sensors, networks and software that can measure, analyze and either act or recommend action to help production get to "Six Sigma" efficiency. However, few, if any, plants are totally automated. Despite a continuing effort to remove personnel costs and drive repeatability through automation, all plants and factories have human operators. These important human assets are responsible for monitoring the control systems, either to act on system recommendations, or override automated actions if circumstances warrant.

    Most of the time, operators let the system do what it was designed and programmed to do. Sometimes, operators make errors of commission, with causes ranging from misinterpretation of data to poor training or errors of omission attributed to lack of attention or speedy response. An operator's job has often been described as hours of boredom interrupted by moments of sheer panic. What the operator does during panic situations often depends on how well he or she has been trained, or "tuned."

    Steve Rubin, President & CEO, Longwatch
    02/08/2010
  • Tunneling process data securely through firewalls

    This paper presents a new technology that increases the security of data and the overall usability of the solution. It facilitates integration between and with production systems, while preventing cyber attacks and unauthorized users from gaining access to critical process control data and the systems that control production.

    Integration Objects
    03/06/2006
  • Types of Pressure: When and Why Are They Used

    Without measurement there is no control. As with any type of measurement, results need to be expressed in a defined and clear way to allow everyone to interpret and apply those results correctly. Accurate measurements and good measurement practices are essential in industrial automation and process environments, as they have a direct effect on the success of the desired outcome. Pressure, the measure of a force on a specified area, is a straightforward concept, however, depending on the application, there are many different ways of interpreting the force measurement. This white paper will identify the various units of pressure measurement, while discussing when and why certain pressure measurements are used in specific applications.

    Turck
    07/10/2013
  • Ultra Tough Ceramic Pressure Transmitters Handle Problem Applications

    Ceramic pressure transmitters have proven to outperform standard metallic diaphragm transmitters in very demanding applications. Find out why in this white paper from Endress+Hauser that demonstrates the advantages of ceramic sensors, especially in vacuum and chemical service. See why the enhanced stability and lower maintenance of ceramic pressure sensors improve productivity, quality and the bottom line.

    Endress+Hauser
    03/20/2009
  • Understanding and Minimizing Your HMI/SCADA System Security Gaps

    Protecting your HMI/SCADA system is critical but can be challenging due to complex, multi–layered technologies, cyber threats and other risks. This white paper describes where vulnerabilities within an HMI/SCADA system may lie and how companies can take proactive steps to address susceptible areas through security–based software capabilities.

    GE Fanuc
    12/11/2009
  • Understanding Cable Assembly Molding

    While a molded cable assembly can offer significant advantages over a similar product of a mechanical construction, the art of insert molding remains somewhat of a mystery to cable assembly consumers. While attracted by the potential for a more aesthetically pleasing product that can be sealed from the environment and rendered 'tamper proof', the complexity of the insert molding manufacturing process is often over looked.

    Many cable assembly engineers who are consumers - but not producers - of molded assemblies are familiar to some degree with conventional molding. In this environment, the goal is the maximization of process speed which translates directly to bottom line financial performance. Manufacturing lot sizes are often characterized by long runs, where the same part is produced continuously over a considerable amount of time. The molding machines are usually horizontal in construction, use a closed cavity approach with auto-ejection of the finished parts, and operate at much higher injection pressures and speeds than an insert molding process. Additionally, the often uniform nature of the parts relative to wall thickness, balanced runner systems, and sufficient draft on the molded parts being produced serve to support consistent quality in the face of maximum manufacturing speed. The ability to optimize tool cooling, standardize mounting, and implement automated processes are also major differentiators between the conventional horizontal molding and vertical insert molding approaches. The result, all things equal, is a much higher production rate for finished parts in a conventional molding process.

    What then are the challenges of the insert molding process used to manufacture cable assemblies, and, more importantly, how are they met by the manufacturer? At a high level there are four major areas of consideration when discussing the intricacies of insert molding. These include the operator, tooling, equipment, and the process itself. Let's examine each of these in more detail.

    Operator: As with any non-automated process, it is the operator who is often the most important component of the success or failure of a manufacturing lot. This is especially true in cable assembly molding. In addition to knowing the basics of machine operation, the operator has several variables to properly monitor and control if he or she are to produce parts that meet the established design and quality guidelines. In light of some of the equipment and component variability discussed earlier, some of these operator focused considerations include...

    Mike Levesque, Shawn Young & Brock Richard, C&M Corporation
    04/05/2011
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