The integration of scheduling and control systems invariably involves custom programming or the use of proprietary formats to enable the transfer of production schedules. Currently there are two ISA standards committees developing standard schedule formats. The ISA SP88 committee's S88.02 draft 14 presents a batch schedule object model and a set of relational database tables for the exchange of schedule data. At the time this paper was written the ISA SP95 committee was finishing work on the S95.01 Enterprise/Control Integration standard1. S95.01 defines a production schedule object model. The SP95 committee is continuing work on this model as part of the S95.02 development effort. The committee is expected to develop attributes for the objects. This paper analyzes the two committee's work and proposes a mapping between the different sets of work. The mapping shows how the S88.02 schedule object model and exchange tables can fit into the S95.01 production schedule model and the on-going S95.02 work.08/28/2008
With the new economy comes new requirements on all manufacturing and processing activities, including batch processing. The entire chain of activities from order placement to delivery must work seamlessly. This implies that batch processing must be dealt with in a wider concept. In batch systems of today there are generally no means for synchronization or coordination of activities outside the scope of the batch. The solution presented in this paper is to have a flexible but yet tructured component-based system where the batch-processing system will constitute one part nevertheless an important part - of the entire system. The entire system corresponds to a MES system, which can be structured according to the standard ISA S95. A framework is used to synchronize and coordinate the activities of the different components. The execution of a batch is handled by the batch-execution-component, which is S88 compliant. The batch execution component can be synchronized with other components at the stop and start of a batch but also during the execution in a sequential or parallel way. Examples are given in the paper. The benefits of this approach are vital in the new economy, where quicker time-to-market and production-agility become even more important. A system with well designed components and a flexible and user-friendly framework will shorten the project design time, the project implementation time, and the required time for introducing a new product on the market. By having a well-organized MES system in which the execution of the different cells can be synchronized, the production capacity of the area can increase.08/26/2008
This paper reviews the information requirements throughout the development lifecycle across different sectors of the batch industries. It then discusses the challenges facing software seeking to enable smarter working through this lifecycle. Aspects considered include the creation, analysis, manipulation and retrieval of process information in ways that enable more effective decision support, eliminate transcription and work cooperatively allowing users to choose the right tool at the right time. Some of the issues addressed are: Uncertainty and data quality/rigor Risk vs. consequences including the business context Resource constraints addressing what should we do next? Multi-disciplinary synergies and frictions (especially chemist & chemical engineer) Supporting/competing standards where does ISA/S88 fit? The differing needs of simulation, design and recipe execution systems Benefits from an effective IT environment are discussed covering both tactical (direct cost and time savings) and strategic (picking the winners, time to market, more efficient, robust and flexible processes) benefits. The paper draws conclusions regarding the classes of software needed, the essential nature of fully supporting information sharing, the impact of existing and developing standards, the current state of the art available and some ideas on how the future might look.08/28/2008
The S88.01 rule is today a well accepted standard all over the world: all qualified engineers involved in the design of a batch control system are getting familiar with the terminology and models therein described. The focus is now on the implementation. As a matter of fact, the S88.01 standard is not a prescriptive guideline. This means that engineers must define, for each project, which documents are to be produced, by whom and with which formalisms.06/23/2008
This paper discusses the current status and developments in integrated batch automation. The idea of todays batch automation is the integrated automation of the supply chain as a whole. Because many systems are involved in the supply chain, a homogenous integration is one of the biggest problems in integrated batch automation. Key factors for success are mentioned. In theory, with S88 as a well established standard and S95 in the pipeline, there are good guidelines for an automation project. But the experience shows that there is still a difference between theory and practical experience. The basic issue in business control systems is the coverage of required functionality. In this level, there are complicated resource and planning activities. Especially in a net of integrated plants, standard software systems cant cover all the required functionality. Some of these functions may be standard functions in the future, but they are not by now. Even in DCS with state-of-the-art batch systems, some functions are often missing. These are some batch-related functions and the matter of standardized interfaces. But at large, most of the required functionality is available. However, in DCS, stability is much more important than in the ERP world, and in IT based DCS systems sometimes a critical subject. It is shown that the only way to improve batch automation solutions is the development of standards and standardized interfaces. A typical system will be composed of standard systems and enhanced by jobspecific extensions as opposed to pure custom systems. These standard interface solutions are still in an early stage of development. Some attractive standard systems will emerge and boost the batch automation business, while less successful solutions may deter companies from further projects. Therefore, the development of best practice systems and solutions may be an elusive objective, but seems to be the only way to success.08/26/2008
The operations and manufacture of biopharmaceuticals is a complex process combining the capabilities of multiple systems that extend the boundaries of batch processing. The Manufacturing Execution System (MES) receives information from the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and creates the necessary production orders, maintains material tracking/genealogy and coordinates key manual activities. The automated batch control system sequences the phases, controls the devices and captures the necessary history. These systems come together in the operation of Biopharmaceutical production plants, which require a very specific architecture that leverages standard batch products that are tightly integrated with MES capabilities. This is driven by the upstream and downstream processing specifications of such plants, the detailed compliance requirements and the benefits achieved in maximizing automated functionality. This paper explores the unique requirements of batch manufacturing in the biopharmaceutical environment.06/23/2008
Batch management systems are traditionally composed of two subparts, one assuring the creation and configuration of the recipes, and the other assuring the execution of the recipes, i.e., driving the equipments to make a product. By reducing the total time needed for producing a product, the market can be reached quicker and more money can (hopefully) be earned. Time to market is an important key competitive performance indicator. So, how can time to market be reduced? The execution part of the batch management system must obviously work efficiently, but this alone will not be enough. Personnel, materials, scheduling and maintenance information sent from the ERP system must also be managed in an efficient way. The problem is that traditional batch management systems are not intended to or capable of handling this information. Neither are they intended to handle information concerning warehouses, packaging or material receiving. Rather than extending the batch management system beyond its core role, the importance of the MES system and its capabilities should be stressed. An approach based on the ideas and models presented in ISA S95 is believed to be successful. Dedicated cross industry components manage the functions that are decidedly non-batch. Similar to a traditional batch management system that coordinates and synchronizes the recipe execution, a MES system should do the same for the functions of the components. Applying this approach, the batch management system can truly work in the context of the supply chain!!!08/26/2008
Distillation, both batch and continuous, is the most often used separation technique in the Specialty Chemical Industry. While continuous distillation has historically received the most attention, batch distillation has suffered from some public neglect. This paper will present a summary of design basis criteria and control strategies for a multi-purpose batch still. Given the multiple product and flexible processing requirements of batch manufacturing, optimization of a batch distillation process is generally very equipment and process specific, unless the equipment was designed and is used for manufacturing a single product. The concepts presented here are suitable for processing over 80% of the Crude encountered in the industry and the design features and control strategies shown have accounted for 15-30% improved yields and throughputs.08/26/2008
Standards for batch control systems continue to be developed and incorporated into many current and new automation products. This effort is having significant impact on the increased growth of the global batch control systems market and the automation architecture of the next generation of process control systems. This paper will include current market sales, forecasts, and strategic issues involved in continuation of this growth. It also will include a discussion of additional user requirements obtained from a survey of users in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. It will offer recommendations to address these issues, as highlighted in ARC studies, "Batch Control Systems Market Study 2001" and "Batch Control Systems Market Study 2002." The papers also will address how batch standards, traceability, event management, and change control will become core functions designed into future automation systems architectures rather than incomplete add on functions to current systems.06/23/2008
ABB Automation has adopted elements of object-oriented analysis and design in their batch control projects in order to take advantage of the reuse potential inherent in the ISA S88.01 model. Here are some architectural and process tradeoffs that anyone should consider before doing their first project: 1) Define modules at a level of granularity that optimizes reuse without obscuring the process. 2) Be prepared to manage significantly smaller and more numerous modules as compared with traditional procedural decomposition. 3) Give careful attention to module interfaces and communications between modules. 4) Begin with solution patterns that have proven to work in the real world. 5) Think beyond code reuse to design and test documentation reuse for quicker payback. The goals of this paper are: 1) provide a common perspective and terminology for discussions on application reuse, 2) discuss examples of object-oriented analysis and design in batch control and 3) show how most batch control products can be made to support this model, even if they do not utilize object-oriented application languages.08/28/2008
Batch control analysis is one of steps in the design of plants executing batch process - an S88-based analysis of batch process from the control point of view. It is between the conceptual design of the batch process (PFD or P&I) and the start of the design of the control system (design of instrumentation, control hardware and software). Its objective is to fill the gap almost always found between the formulation of requirements and the specification of the actual implementation. It transforms user requirements into process-based detailed functional requirements. It has several advantages if these problems are handled, not by software engineers, rather by batch control analysts who are closer to the plant and know the process better.06/23/2008
Batch Best Practices and Strategic Automation Helping Smaller Companies to Better Business Performance
With the introduction of S88.01, the impending introduction of S88.00.02 and the drive to automate batch production from the transmitter to the corporate offices, the time has never been better for the small to medium size batch processing companies to benefit from the best practices of the best-in-class companies. This paper discusses and gives examples of an approach which aims to match the automation requirements of a batch site with its business drivers. The procedure starts with a comparative analysis of the batch best practices of a site with those of best-in-class sites, in areas such as technology and the application of standards. It also compares the often overlooked, but very important "soft items" such as skills and management practices. A differential analysis then shows the areas where most focus will bring the best results. Finally a strategic automation plan is developed, with the involvement of the site, to deliver the best balance of technology, organization and skills for the most effective business performance.08/28/2008
The upgrade of an existing operational plant to a new control system can be full of uncertainties, especially in the areas of operability, downtime, and benefit. Cabot Corporation recently upgraded their Treated Silica operations in Tuscola, Illinois to Batch software, new PLC processors, and an upgrade of the existing HMI's to the latest version of the vendors software. The previous system was using older PLC's with HMIs in a semi-automatic configuration. The system relied heavily on the operators to make critical batch decisions and mechanical equipment adjustments. Cabot utilized the services of a batch software provider/developer, who developed the new system using S88 standards. The system started up with minimal downtime and has delivered as promised. The Units have seen as much as 30% increased throughput, production record keeping has become more accurate, and the product has become more consistent. These gains were achieved by the automation of a great majority of the operators former manual tasks, which included the use of batching technology and the addition of more automation equipment in the field. Additionally, to speed production and fulfill Cabot's production needs for greater throughput, recipe entry onto the batch list is now handled using specialized campaign software.08/26/2008
The migration of an existing Batch application, either by replacement or upgrade of the batch engine, or the entire replacement of the control system, raises many issues. This paper covers the work involved, and the benefits and pitfalls expected, in contemplating a replacement of the batch engine or the entire control system, and the analysis and justification necessary for a migration to realise potential benefits. Examples will be used where a validated pharmaceutical plant converted to a new S88 aware batch engine and chemical plants replaced the entire control system. In both cases the benefits and problems and techniques used to ensure a successful conversion and achieve the potential benefits, including increased yield and quality and reduced cycle times, will be discussed. Also covered will be applications (batch reactor), with examples, where a batch engine was not necessary but the provision of this solution on a new plant did produce many primary and secondary benefits. The paper will conclude with a breakdown of the main technical and engineering issues involved and the justification and benefits that may be attained.08/26/2008
The current loop is probably one of the most underestimated data transmission and control method. It's so simple that we tend to ignore it in favor of more complex and sophisticated methods.04/24/2013
Everyone is familiar with the concept of temperature in an everyday sense because our bodies feel and are sensitive to any perceptible change. But for more exacting needs as found in many scientific, industrial, and commercial uses, the temperature of a process must be measured and controlled definitively. Even changes of a fraction of a degree Celsius can be wasteful or even catastrophic in many situations.
For example, some biotech processes require elevated temperatures for reactions to occur and added reagents require exactly the right temperature for proper catalytic action. New alloys of metal and composites, such as those on the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner, are formed with high temperature methods at exacting degree points to create the necessary properties of strength, endurance, and reliability. Certain medical supplies and pharmaceuticals must be stored at exactly the desired temperature for transport and inventory to protect against deterioration and ensure effectiveness.
These new applications have driven the hunt for more exacting temperature measurement and control solutions that are easy to implement and use by both novice users and experienced engineers alike. This is a challenging task. However, new equipment and standards, such as LXI (LAN Extensions for Instrumentation) offer a methodology to perform these exacting measurements in test and control applications.
Many LXI devices are available on the market today. But, what do you need to know to select the best temperature measurement solution for your test and control application? This paper describes the common pitfalls of precision temperature measurement and what you need to consider before selecting a temperature measurement solution.01/06/2010
Learn about automation using PLCs, SCADA and telemetry fundamentals, process control fundamentals, data acquisition concepts and more.06/13/2008
The Energy Efficiency Ensemble. This white paper explains how controllers and other automation technology can help to reduce energy costs in a better-built system.04/01/2015