White Papers

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  • TIA-1005 Industrial Ethernet Cabling Standard

    The Effect on the 10/100 Industrial Ethernet Switch Performance.

    The Anixter Infrastructure Solutions Lab wanted to determine what effect the new TIA-1005 industrial cabling infrastructure standard would have on the data throughput performance of real Ethernet data packets running between SmartBits test cards and various manufacturers' 10/100 Ethernet switches in a real-world simulation. The test included five (5) different IP20-rated switches and three (3) different enterprise rack-mounted switches using various cabling channels made from both Category 5e and Category 6 cabling components and connector pairs that are allowable under the standard. The premise also asserts that the effect of the cabling channel interference will also vary from port to port and switch to switch because of the variable transmitter and receiver functionality.

    Anixter
    10/28/2009
  • The Benefits of Using Documenting Calibrators

    One of the benefits using a documenting calibrator is to be able to determine how accurate an instrument or sensor is. However, many times in the calibration process, documentation is a step that process manufacturers skip because they lack the resources and the time to do so. Although most instruments are very accurate these days, regulatory bodies often need to know just how inaccurate a particular instrument is and whether it drifts in and out of a specified tolerance over time. Download this white paper and learn how using a documenting calibrator can can help cut down costs and time, minimize manual errors while improving efficiency, accuracy and quality in the calibration process.

    Beamex
    10/28/2009
  • No–Compromise Batch Automation

    Small manufacturers with batch or sequence–oriented processes can finally stop settling for less. A new generation of fully featured process automation systems can now meet small manufacturers' automation needs and budgets.

    Honeywell
    10/28/2009
  • Optimized Performance Throughout System Life Cycle

    Amidst the continued heated discussion on the pros and cons of integrated safety systems, market demand — driven by the pursuit of reduced cost, operational excellence and engineering efficiencies — continues to fuel the inevitable integration efforts. This white paper will discuss integrated safety system solutions.

    ABB
    10/14/2009
  • Evolution of Backlights in Human Machine Interface (HMI) Panels

    Flat panel displays have become very popular in the automation industry with applications such as Industrial computers and Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) connecting to all different types of PLCs and embedded controller boards. An understanding of the history and development of a technology can be a tremendous aid in properly utilizing it for a given application. This article discusses the evolution of the HMIs, in particular the backlights behind the HMIs used in many of today’s industries.

    AVG
    10/14/2009
  • Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement for Heavy Industry

    Reducing the carbon footprint brought on by plant inefficiencies, with the goals of reducing plant costs, achieving energy efficiency and security, and abating greenhouse gases (GHGs) are challenges faced today. Download paper now for energy efficiency solutions. Or, visit TheOptimizedPlant.com Knowledge Center for more white papers and case studies on reducing costs and increasing efficiency.

    Honeywell
    10/14/2009
  • Safety Instrumented Systems: The "Logic" of Single Loop Logic Solvers

    The industrial process industry is experiencing a dynamic growth in functional safety applications. That's why companies are actively taking steps to comply with worldwide safety standards such as ANSI/ISA 84 and IEC 61508/61511. To accomplish this, safety practitioners look to a "new generation" of equipment–such as single-loop logic solvers–specifically designed and approved for safety instrumented systems.
    Get this digital interactive white paper and learn how single loop logic solvers can help you achieve your plant safety objectives.

    Moore Industries
    10/11/2009
  • Wireless Monitoring of Valves

    The Need for Wireless Monitoring – An Overview
    There is a real on-going need for monitoring of valve positions (actuated or manual) in the process line. Malfunctioning of a valve can result in danger to human health and safety, affect yields, and generate environmental risks. In some industries, regulation requires constant recording of valve position. Currently, such monitoring is done through wired “Switch Boxes”. Each such device requires data transmission and power cabling. Not only are these cables costly to manufacture and install, they are also one of the most frequent sources of failures in the process line, due to the fact that they are very often exposed to harsh environmental conditions. In fact, it is right here, at the field device level, where the majority of problems with wires really exist.

    Israel Radomsky , CEO and Founder, Eltav Wireless Monitoring Ltd. Israel
    10/09/2009
  • Why Do Steam Traps Fail?

    Properly functioning steam traps open to release condensate and automatically close when steam is present. Failed traps waste fuel, reduce efficiency, increase production costs and compromise the overall integrity of the steam and condensate systems. Traps should be tested on a regular basis -- or the neglect may be quite costly.

    Bruce Gorelick, Enercheck Systems and Alan Bandes, UE Systems, Inc.
    10/09/2009
  • Take Care Of Your Pumps And They'll Take Care Of You

    The old saying, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," may have been coined by process and plant engineers tired of repairing or replacing pumps. Adding a flow switch to monitor pump wet/dry conditions in the process control loop to avoid dry–running conditions helps protect pumps and keeps them running longer.

    FCI
    10/07/2009
  • Thermal Management: Heat Balance Control via IR Sensing

    The ExergenIR speed boost system is a productivity enhancing concept which, by optimizing and properly controlling process temperatures, can dramatically increase production speed while assuring high product quality.

    Exergen
    09/29/2009
  • Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices that use sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. These autonomous devices, or nodes, combine with routers and a gateway to create a typical WSN system. The distributed measurement nodes communicate wirelessly to a central gateway, which provides a connection to the wired world where you can collect, process, analyze and present your measurement data.

    National Instruments
    09/24/2009
  • Development of Integrated Flexi-Burn Dual Oxidant CFB Power Plant

    Carbon-dioxide capture and storage (CCS) offers the potential for major reductions in carbon dioxide emissions of fossil fuel-based power generation in the fairly short term, and oxyfuel combustion is one of the identified CCS technology options. Foster Wheeler (FW) is working on reduction of carbon dioxide with its integrated Flexi-Burn dual-oxidant PC and CFB technology.

    The proven high efficiency circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology offers a solution for carbon dioxide reduction both in re-powering and in greenfield power plants. CFB technology has the advantages of a more uniform furnace heat flux, excellent fuel flexibility and offers the opportunity to further reduce carbon dioxide emissions by co-firing coal with bio-fuels.

    Development and design of an integrated Flexi-Burn dual-oxidant CFB boiler and balance of plant system was conducted in both air mode and oxyfuel mode. Through proper configuration and design, the same boiler can be switched from air mode to oxyfuel mode. The dual-oxidant CFB system incorporates features to maximize plant efficiency and power output when operating in the oxy-firing mode through firing more fuel in the same boiler.

    Existing boiler design tools are being modified to incorporate the features of oxy-combustion, so that various design options can be evaluated. The 460 MWe supercritical CFB power plant (currently under construction by FW) has been used as the basis for an integrated Flexi-Burn dual-oxidant CFB study.

    Foster Wheeler USA and Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Finland
    09/23/2009
  • Control and Condition Monitoring of Reciprocating Compressor

    Optimum configuration for control system, instrumentation, electrical and condition monitoring of reciprocating compressor is presented. Reciprocating compressors are most flexible and most efficient available compressors. Recommendations regarding inter-stage pressure control, capacity control system, temperature control, performance monitoring, local control panel, irregularity and condition monitoring are discussed.

    Installed reciprocating compressor horsepower is approximately three times that of centrifugal compressors and maintenance costs of reciprocating compressors are approximately three and half times greater than those for centrifugal compressors. The expected level of reliability and availability of reciprocating compressors is very high and it presents a real challenge. Advanced methods of control and condition monitoring shall be applied in order to obtain the high level of performance, safety and reliability.

    Amin Almasi, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A.
    09/23/2009
  • Electronic Device Damage in Control Panel of Drilling Unit

    Reliability of electronic circuit boards and electronic devices of console of drilling units are investigated. This new analytical method confirms modification of electronic device dynamic behaviour which installed in console of drilling unit. It is in agreement with experimental results which show electronic circuit board failure in driller console when dynamic loading is considerably less than values required to affect the board when board itself , lonely, is under vibration test.

    Majority of failures of electronic equipment, instruments, sensors and sensitive devices are mechanical in nature. Typical failures caused by break, crack and creep. It is often quite difficult to determine main cause of malfunction and failure. Dynamic and vibration loads caused very large percent of sensitive equipment failures which installed in dynamic environment. Vibration failures are often difficult to trace. Usually resonance situations and coupling effects are involved. Sometimes it does not appear to be any connection between failed parts and vibration loadings.

    The dynamic behaviour of electronic and electric device is a subject that has received considerable attention due to its technical importance. Analysis of electric / electronic devices or circuit boards under dynamic loading was presented previously. But only a limited number of contributions have been published on counteraction effects of complex systems (in this case drilling unit) and these devices. New analytical formulations to study modified dynamic behaviour of sensitive devices in a complex system (drilling unit) is presented. When a circuit board or electronic device is installed in a driller console, there will be complicated interactions between its dynamic characteristics and drilling unit dynamic behaviour. There are different dynamic responses and consequently much more possibilities of resonance. Electronic devices and electronic circuit boards are vulnerable against dynamic loading. For example for a drilling unit revamp project, vibration tests were conducted on electronic circuit board in a broad frequency range and with high vibration amplitudes. Tests were repeated however no damage was observed. During drilling unit site performance test, failure of electronic circuit board was occurred because of mechanical damage. The dynamic loading amplitude was considerably less than amplitude in vibration tests. Extensive investigation shows that failure was only due to modified dynamic behaviour of system.

    Amin Almasi, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A.
    09/23/2009
  • Surviving the Automation Knowledge Crisis

    Automation systems today have become remarkable warehouses of knowledge and information. Beyond just system configuration, many years of effort is inevitably invested in these systems by not only control engineers, but operations, process, maintenance, business and management personnel as well. In fact, over the life of an automation system the total intellectual investment will come to exceed the initial hardware and software cost many times over.

    This paper will discuss some of the factors contributing to the impending process industry automation knowledge crisis, present real–life industry examples and provide a proven solution to mitigate the problems.

    PAS
    09/17/2009
  • Unlocking the Power of .NET for Industrial Automation

    Industrial application developers have had two main options for interacting with production processes via programmable logic controllers (PLCs): they can buy a preprogrammed monolithic, shrink-wrapped human machine interface (HMI), complete and ready to go or they can customize their own solutions.

    Shrink-wrapped HMI software packages are appealing because many complex tasks are hidden from you. Purchase the development software from an authorized distributor, load it into your development PC and then configure, debug and test. Then, just deploy the necessary runtime applications, data servers and configuration files on to your target PC or PCs. What could be easier?

    But cookie-cutter HMI software solutions might not necessarily be the best or most practical approach for your specific industrial applications.

    For one thing, while the shrink-wrapped HMI software packages enable connections to other vendors' devices, software, and systems via OPC or other standards, such connectivity is seldom adequate for high security or real-time control. And no matter how advanced the integration technology the package uses, you will end up lagging behind the technology curve. For example, if you had bought a package using the distributed common object model (DCOM) and wanted to benefit from advances in security and robustness that Microsoft had made since you bought the package, you would have to buy a new package. Moreover, the monolithic nature of the shrink-wrapped offerings often makes it difficult to embed third-party capabilities directly into your solution, thus limiting your options further.

    Then there's training. Because the development environment and behavior of each HMI vendor's software varies, you'll need to acquire specialized skills to accomplish similar tasks. Training courses, material costs and schedules also vary by HMI publisher and many times are offered only through exclusive distributor channels. You could consider hiring outside help, but because of the specialized training and experience, the talent pool can be relatively shallow and therefore proportionately expensive.

    And for many, cost of multiple deployments is an even bigger issue. Before you can actually deploy your solution to PCs, portable devices, or Web servers, you must typically have to pay for additional runtime software licenses. If you have more than a couple of users, this could amount to a considerable expense, often making this approach cost-prohibitive, especially if you are paying for more functionality than you actually never need.

    Finally, there are the intangibles. As well-designed and flexible as these shrinkwrapped solutions might be, they almost always force compromises that would not be necessary if the solution were custom built for your specific applications. Whether that is a matter of function or just pride, it can be significant determining your satisfaction with the resulting interface.

    INGEAR
    09/10/2009
  • Best Practices for Controller Tuning

    Controller tuning can be accomplished quickly and accurately using proven techniques. While many engineers and technicians resort to "tune by feel," most will admit that this approach yields inconsistent results. While some might claim that controller tuning is "part art, part science," use of these best practices can ensure that it is 98% science.

    Expertune
    09/09/2009
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