White Papers

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  • Predictive Control of Batch Reactors

    Continuous control of batch reactors is now feasible with Model Based Predictive Control. First Principles modeling allows the solution of difficult problems of non linear, integrative, constrained, cascaded end split range control, with no lag error on ramping set points. This has been implemented in DCS control boards and PLC,s.Diverse industrial applications are described. Linking Sequential Control and Continuous Control is made easier if both control schemes are implemented in the same generic control library.

    J. Richalet, ADERSA; Eric Vitté, Schneider Electric
    08/24/2008
  • Project Management of Batch Control Projects: How to avoid the Pitfalls

    Batch control projects have tended to be software intensive and often overrun substantially. In most cases this is due to a lack of foresight and planning in the early stages. The “S88 Era” has tried to alleviate this situation by providing a structured methodology – but again the flexibility of current control systems and a lack of planning can produce the same effect as having no structure at all. This paper aims to highlight some potential problems and pitfalls and how they may be contained without adversely affecting the outcome of the project.

    Dr. Maurice J. Wilkins, Director of Process Automation and Control Systems, Millennium Specialty Chemicals
    08/24/2008
  • Seamless Project Execution, from URS to Implementation and Maintenance

    Since ISA S88 is widely used within the process industry, process engineers and automation engineers from the DCS vendors use a common terminology and structure to describe batch processes and production. Why not use this common language to create a DCS independent relational database, mapping the S88 plant model supporting the life-cycle of the project from (Unit Requirements specification (URS) to maintenance? Starting with the URS, data are entered in the database and over the subsequent project phases more and more details are added by the control engineers. The consequent use of types and instances together with the possibility to define rules for the later generation of software reduces the necessary input to a minimum. As just one database exists instead of several documents, data inconsistency is impossible. Later the DCS specific solutions are referenced to the system independent types in the database. The software for the DCS is generated, applying the rules set for the project. The implementation time and the number of faults is reduced dramatically. The content of the database is documented automatically through several standardized reports according to GMP guidelines, providing a secure way to fully comply with FDA requirements. Test documents are generated in a similar way.

    Steffen Uebler, Dipl. Ing., SIEMENS AG
    08/24/2008
  • Building MES-applications with S95

    In modern manufacturing processes the usage of automated systems is inevitable. Whether for production control, scheduling, or reporting, computers are used. The capturing of data out of the production process and transforming these data into information is one of the objectives of MESsystems. This paper describes the recent development and introduction of several MES-modules in a manufacturing plant. The role of the S95 standard in the project will be highlighted. After a short introduction of the production process, the business goals for the project are briefly discussed. Then the functional and technical architecture will be presented. The results and the benefits of the project will be discussed as well as the benefits of using the S95 standards during the project. The paper ends with the lessons learned.

    Ing. Erwin Winkel MBA, WBF
    08/23/2008
  • Business Driven Systems Migration

    Traditional approaches all have one thing in common, they are exciting for engineers but not the business. The problems we are typically faced with are that, despite the age of equipment, it works and the latest technology in itself does not have sufficient benefit.

    Ian Allan, Billy Melvin, Peter Iles-Smith, WBF
    08/23/2008
  • Composite Batch Report and 21 CFR 11

    New technologies bring a step change in the availability, flexibility and quality of data for reporting. Batch reporting can be considered to be made up of three elements (1) automated actions by the control system, (2) manual actions and records by an operator and (3) process values. Windows technology has made the combination of (1) and (2) routine but combining (1), (2) and (3) into a single report has been elusive. In addition within the regulated industries the integrity of such a report has to be assured.

    Chris Morse, WBF
    08/23/2008
  • IR Automation Guidebook: Temperature Monitoring and Control with IR Cameras

    This handbook is intended to help those considering the creation or improvement of production automation or monitoring systems to take advantage of what IR cameras have to offer. Numerous application examples will be presented, with explanations of how these IR vision systems can best be implemented.

    FLIR Systems
    07/29/2008
  • The Fundamentals of Refractory Inspection with Infrared Thermography

    Thermography has been used to inspect the condition of refractory lined vessels and piping for many years now. It is a proven and accepted method for locating damaged and missing refractory material. Most companies however, do not fully understand the full benefits of performing refractory surveys. They mainly use thermography only before a plant turnaround to determine the extent of refractory damage in order to estimate the materials and labor needed for the repairs. This paper discusses the fundamentals of refractory inspection and how Thermal Diagnostics Limited has been using Infrared thermography in Trinidad and Tobago as an effective means of predicting areas of future refractory problems in addition to pre-turnaround surveys.

    Sonny James, Managing Director Thermal Diagnostics Ltd
    07/29/2008
  • The Project Management Office

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the general concepts, purposes, specific responsibilities and requirements associated with an effective project management office.

    Thomas B. Clark, Project Success, Inc. (formerly YCA)
    07/14/2008
  • Applying S88, S95 and B2MML in Dairy Enterprise

    This paper describes an end-user project at Arla Foods with the use of the B2MML schemas as a corporate standard for communication between business systems and ES systems. This presentation presents the real-life experiences using the B2MML schemas. The focus is on the Schedule and Performance schemas. A short introduction on the general use of S88 and S95 within Arla Foods is also included.

    Arne Svendsen, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Control and Automation Maturity Models in Brewing

    How do we choose the correct level of automation for a specific process area within the production facility? How does that facility drive a migration of its control systems to meet increasing business requirements while taking into account very real constraints around skills levels, existing equipment configuration and materials availability? These are very real questions confronting all of us today irrespective of how basic or advanced our manufacturing facilities are. This paper will present the concept of simple maturity models with regard to manufacturing control systems. It will illustrate the use of the concept through the typical stages of brewing control system complexity found within a brewing process area – from the completely manual to the fully automated configurations. It will further explore the typical business drivers which would require the move from one level to the next as well as the impacted factors to be addressed when driving a migration of the control system. Relevant international standards like S95 and S88 will also be put into context as helpful models and terminology in support of the business needs of SABMiller.

    Willie Lotz, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Control Room Information for Batch Processes

    The way information is displayed in control rooms in the process industry has developed a long way from the original gauges, chart recorders and lamps to the sophisticated windows based Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) of today. But does the increased ability to acquire and to display more data mean that better information is conveyed than before? This paper describes how the technology available recently has not been used to its full potential in control rooms. A methodology is then developed to make use of the available technology in order to assist in the delivery of information to control room operators. In particular the paper addresses the problems in the presentation of plant data in the context of batch processes.

    Milton Crofts, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • ISA 95 Integration Between SAP R/3 And Batch In Pharmaceutical Applications

    The ISA 95 Enterprise to Manufacturing integration model is used to structure the integration processes between business systems and the plant floor. Through the use of the ISA 95 “structures, a “common denominator” business model was established for integrating SAP’s R/3 PP-PI transactions and data structures with an ISA 88 batch automation data structure.

    Stephan Van Dijck, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Modeling Batch Process Using Virtual Variable

    Batch processes include many steps or phases related to each other, either sequentially or in parallel, in order to achieve a final outcome. The final outcome of such a process is measured using quality and quantity targets. However, in many cases, the outcomes of intermediate steps/phases are not measured even though their values may significantly affect the final outcome. In some cases the measurement of such intermediate outcomes is not possible. This paper will present a methodology that applies “Virtual Variables” in order to predict and qualify the intermediate outcome. With this qualification and modeling, the final outcome of the whole batch can be targeted better. The paper will present data from an actual project where such a methodology has been applied.

    Dr. Eyal Brill, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Modular Turnkey Concept for Pharmaceutical Sterile Formulation

    Sterile parental drugs are produced or formulated in GMP critical batch processes. These automated process installations are submitted to a lot of regulations applying to the pharmaceutical industry. The formulation installations have moved away from being just utilities’ extensions and have become speciality installations requiring a high degree of technical skills but also knowledge about regulations and qualification/validation strategies. As a result of this, specialised suppliers offer a turnkey approach for concept design, detailed engineering, realisation and qualification of these installations. Nowadays, there is a move towards modular skid concepts, allowing prefabrication and pre-qualification.

    Geert Roggeman, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Monitoring Multi-Recipe Batch Manufacturing Performance

    Quality and consistency are key factors in determining business success. Manufacturing products that satisfy product quality and consistency specifications first time result in increased productivity and lower overall manufacturing costs. Approaches to achieving consistently high quality production and enhanced manufacturing performance include Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Six Sigma with increasing attention now being paid to Multivariate Statistical Process Control methodologies (MSPC) or perhaps better termed “Process Performance Monitoring”. In today’s process manufacturing environment, a number of issues arise which can challenge the application of MSPC based process performance monitoring technologies. For example, most applications of MSPC have tended to focus upon the manufacture of a single product, i.e. one grade, one recipe, etc. with separate models being developed to monitor individual product types. However, with process manufacturing trends being influenced by customer demands and the drive for product diversification, there has been an increase in flexible manufacturing. Thus with many companies now producing a wide variety of products, there is a real need for process models which allow a range of products, grades or recipes to be monitored using a single process representation. Three industrial case studies are presented to demonstrate the application of the multi-group performance monitoring approaches.

    Julian Morris, Elaine Martin, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • The Price of the Split Between S88 and S95

    There is a split between the S88 and S95 models. In the physical model of S95 procedures are not implemented. Why not use PFC for logistic procedures instead of BPML? Your engineers have to learn only one model. You can combine S88 and S95 to one physical model for batch, continuous and discrete processing including storage units.

    Siem Broersen, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Applying S88 – The Human Factor

    Automating manufacturing using S88 concepts across all of the operational manufacturing boundaries has become the “standard” way of doing business. The current states of the technologies used in these automations require individuals with unique capabilities, or success is not always certain. Each operational area has its own unique needs, and not only requires a high minimum capability in that area, but the ability to coordinate across areas as well. This paper will address what it takes to identify levels of capability, and the benefits of taking advantage of this capability. What to look for in evaluating an organization’s capability in delivering automation will also be discussed, as well as the results of not knowing your automation supplier’s real capabilities.

    David A. Chappell, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • Tight Integration of Process Control with ERP

    For a new built multi purpose batch plant the DCS with batch control was linked to the ERP-system of the company to ensure consistent and up-to-date data in all systems. As part of the engineering project of the plant the part process control using a standard DCS with the manufacturers batch extension was configured to meet the needs resulting from the task to exchange data and information with the company-wide used ERP-system. Nevertheless a direct link between DCS and ERP-system could not be established due to misfit of data models. Therefore a „Middleware“ was configured and programmed. The Middleware takes relevant material information from the ERP-system and sends it to the batch control system, takes master recipes from the batch control system and creates planning recipes within the ERP-system, takes orders from the ERP and generates control recipes within the batch control system, and reads current data from the DCS about process status and material consumption and production and creates messages for the ERP. The Middleware translates between DCS and ERP generating fast and reliable information-update in all systems and comprehensive documentation of the production process with low personnel efforts.

    Martin Zeller, WBF
    06/23/2008
  • 21 CFR Part 11 Compliant Recipe and Batch Management - What’s Missing?

    In this paper (and associated presentation), the requirements to manage various levels of batch recipe within the pharmaceutical and other sectors within the Life Sciences sectors industry will be discussed, as well as the requirements to maintain secure batch records, including compliance with various electronic records and electronic signatures guidance. Examples of how this can be achieved within an ERP solution (without the need for a separate MES level batch or recipe management solution) will also be discussed.

    David Stokes, WBF
    06/23/2008
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