White Papers

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  • Essentials of Safety Instrumented Systems

    This Control Essentials Guide is the first in a continuing series of interactive PDFs by the editors of Control. Essentials of Safety Instrumented Systems is designed to provide process industry professionals with an up-to-date, top-level understanding of the most important SIS issues. From fundamental concepts and terminology to the ongoing debate over integrated vs. stand-alone safety systems, get up to speed quickly on the key technology and marketplace drivers.

    Control Global
    01/28/2013
  • Discussion of Flowmeter Accuracy Specifications

    Understanding the accuracy of a given flowmeter is an important field but it can also be misleading as different specifications are used to explain how accurate a flowmeter measurement actually measures. This paper discusses the different specifications and interprets the impact of them.

    Why deal with accuracy?

    The reasons for dealing with flowmeter accuracy specifications are many-folded. One important reason is from an economical point of view. The more accurate a flowmeter can measure, the more money you will save as the medium is measured with only very little inaccurately.

    Another reason is in terms of dosing, where a given amount of a medium is added. This must be done with a high level of precision and the accuracy is thus important in order to dose correctly. This is critical in certain industries such as in pharma or chemical.

    A third reason is in terms of billing purposes. By performing with good accuracy, you know exactly how much fluid flows into the process. Thereby, you are able to determine the right price of the product and thereby bill the customers correctly.

    Therefore, knowing how much that flows through your system is paramount in order to make a profitable and solid business. You need to rely on a precise measurement with good accuracy. However, good accuracy must be obtained not only in one measurement, but in all measurements independent of the time.

    Siemens
    01/21/2013
  • Virtualization Is a Reality

    Thin clients are performance heavyweights in industrial applications, cutting up-front and lifecycle costs while improving reliability and security. Virtualization and thin clients are two of the leading trends in computing, both in the commercial and industrial sectors. For industrial applications, virtualization and thin clients intersect when thin clients are used as a key component in virtualization strategies for process control and MES. In this white paper, you will learn about the benefits of virtualization, the interrelationship between both virtualization and thin-client technologies, why the thin-client approach is often the least expensive solution, and advantages of thin clients over PCs.

    Pepperl+Fuchs
    01/16/2013
  • Hacking the Industrial Network

    Industrial control networks are highly vulnerable to intelligent remote attacks, as well as non-intelligent viruses. With threats to these networks increasing in complexity and scope, decision makers need to take action before it's too late.

    Phoenix Contact
    01/04/2013
  • Building a Bridge to Safety

    This paper examines the benefits and shortfalls of both safety PLCs and configurable safety relays. It also examines a new way of handling safety in industrial automation, "SafetyBridge" technology.

    Phoenix Contact
    01/02/2013
  • Designing with Thermocouples: Get the Most from Your Measurements

    More than 60 percent of all industrial temperature measurement applications in the U.S. use thermocouples. Despite their widespread use, there are many misconceptions about thermocouples. This paper will discuss some of the basic technical issues that engineers need to consider when applying thermocouples.

    Phoenix Contact
    12/30/2012
  • Analysis of 3S CoDeSys Security Vulnerabilities for Industrial Control System Professionals

    This White Paper explains:

    • What the 3S CoDeSys vulnerabilities are and what an attacker can do with them
    • How to find out what control/SCADA devices are affected
    • The risks and potential consequences to SCADA and control systems
    • The compensating controls that will help block known attack vectors

    A number of security vulnerabilities in the CoDeSys Control Runtime System were disclosed in January 2012. In October 2012, fully functional attack tools were also released to the general public.

    While CoDeSys is not widely known in the SCADA and ICS field, its product is embedded in many popular PLCs and industrial controllers. Many vendors are potentially vulnerable, and include devices used in all sectors of manufacturing and infrastructure. As a result, there is a risk that criminals or political groups may attempt to exploit them for either financial or ideological gain.

    This White Paper summarizes the currently known facts about these vulnerabilities and associated attack tools. It also provides guidance regarding a number of mitigations and compensating controls that operators of SCADA and ICS systems can take to protect critical operations.

    Tofino
    12/26/2012
  • Getting the Most Out of Your Wastewater Biosolids

    Wastewater treatment facilities are generally installed for one purpose - to clean up dirty water so that clean water can be discharged back into the environment. Nearly all municipal treatment plants rely on biological processes for wastewater treatment whereby bacteria and other microorganisms, frequently called 'bugs,' do this job of cleaning up the water.

    Siemens
    12/20/2012
  • SCADA Systems - Looking Ahead

    This white paper provides insight into the evolution of the modern SCADA system and looks to the very near future by discussing such timely topics as:

    • Improving system efficiency and security
    • Managing field data and
    • Open standards

    Schneider Electric - Control MicroSystems
    12/18/2012
  • Are Your Safety Systems Up to SIS Standards?

    Some 66% of the process control systems now in use globally were installed before publication of today's commonly used safety standards, IEC 61508 and IEC 61511/ISA 84. Here's how to tell if you safety systems are up to snuff.

    ABB
    12/13/2012
  • Special Report from Automation Fair 2012 - Smart. Safe. Sustainable.

    The editors of Control and Control Design compiled this special report from the 21st annual Automation Fair event, hosted by Rockwell Automation, in Philadelphia, November 5-8. This interactive PDF includes more than 20 articles documenting highlights ranging from executive keynotes and new product announcements to vertical industry forums and Rockwell Automation Process Solutions User Group and Safety Automation Forum meetings.

    Control/Rockwell Automation
    12/11/2012
  • Yokogawa User Group: Integrated Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Halloween in New Orleans this year saw more than the usual array of costumed revelers on Bourbon Street. Indeed, hundreds of process automation professionals descended on the Crescent City to exchange ideas and best practices at Yokogawa's 2012 User Group Conference and Exhibition. The Control editorial team was on hand and developed this exclusive report of presentation highlights--on topics ranging from safety system risk management to the latest in data acquisition technology.

    Control Global Staff
    12/10/2012
  • How to Select a Pressure Sensor for a Specific Application

    There are over two hundred pressure sensor suppliers around the world, offering products from a few dollars to thousands of dollars. A purchaser or engineer unfamiliar with pressure sensors can become overwhelmed with the price range, quality and options. The first step is to understand his/her application from the media being measured, to the desired electrical output for indication or control. The following is a guide through a variety of options to make a prudent decision.

    Media is the most important item when selecting a pressure sensor for an application. Most sensor suppliers only sell sensors that are rated for benign environments such as clean, dry air. The next tier of suppliers will sell products that will handle mild environments through to difficult/corrosive environments. Clean water, steam, some forms of hydraulic oils and Freon can be considered mild environments. Difficult media tends to be corrosive liquids and gases such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, bleach, bromides, waste water and hydrogen. Wrongful selection of a pressure sensor can lead to catastrophic failure and serious injury. When unsure, ask the pressure sensor manufacturer to provide a chemical compatibility chart with their products. In fluidic systems, such as water and hydraulics, one must understand how the water hammer and pressure transients effect the pressure sensor.

    American Sensor Technologies
    11/15/2012
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