White Papers

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  • Essentials of Level Instrumentation

    The task of determining just how much material is in a tank, reactor or other container really doesn't seem like it ought to be such a difficult task. But when faced with the question, the instrumentation engineer has at his disposal a surprising range of sensor technology options. In this Essentials guide, the editors of Control walk through the alternatives, explain how to narrow your choices and uncover the latest application trends. Register to download this document.

    Control Global
  • Electronic Flow Control Valve (EFCV) with Pressure Compensation Capability

    A new concept for an Electronic Flow Control Valve (EFCV) with pressure compensation capability is introduced. Based on its embedded sensors and micro controller, the EFCV can provide flow control without the need of load/displacement/speed information from the power elements, like hydraulic cylinders or hydraulic motors.

  • Human Factors: Planning & Design of a Control Room

    The emergence of new technologies, new ergonomic standards and increased public awareness of workplace health issues have combined to inspire a dramatic shift in console design. Today's control workstations are smaller, more functional and more aesthetically appealing than earlier generations. Download this informational package to learn more.

  • Securing Your Automation Ethernet Network

    This paper covers the importance of securing automation devices for access internally on an Intranet, or externally over the Internet. Choosing an Ethernet Fieldbus offers the competitive advantage of speed, flexibility and accessibility though steps should be taken to secure automation devices and any associated programming workstations and servers. This paper seeks to educate the Controls Engineer on security strategies, technologies and options available.

    Schneider Electric
  • 10 Steps to Lean Electrical Controls

    Globalization is forcing companies to constantly become more efficient. To drive efficiencies, many companies are implementing Lean Manufacturing to stay competitive in this ever shrinking world.

  • Essentials of Safety Instrumented Systems

    This Control Essentials Guide is the first in a continuing series of interactive PDFs by the editors of Control. Essentials of Safety Instrumented Systems is designed to provide process industry professionals with an up-to-date, top-level understanding of the most important SIS issues. From fundamental concepts and terminology to the ongoing debate over integrated vs. stand-alone safety systems, get up to speed quickly on the key technology and marketplace drivers.

    Control Global
  • Discussion of Flowmeter Accuracy Specifications

    Understanding the accuracy of a given flowmeter is an important field but it can also be misleading as different specifications are used to explain how accurate a flowmeter measurement actually measures. This paper discusses the different specifications and interprets the impact of them.

    Why deal with accuracy?

    The reasons for dealing with flowmeter accuracy specifications are many-folded. One important reason is from an economical point of view. The more accurate a flowmeter can measure, the more money you will save as the medium is measured with only very little inaccurately.

    Another reason is in terms of dosing, where a given amount of a medium is added. This must be done with a high level of precision and the accuracy is thus important in order to dose correctly. This is critical in certain industries such as in pharma or chemical.

    A third reason is in terms of billing purposes. By performing with good accuracy, you know exactly how much fluid flows into the process. Thereby, you are able to determine the right price of the product and thereby bill the customers correctly.

    Therefore, knowing how much that flows through your system is paramount in order to make a profitable and solid business. You need to rely on a precise measurement with good accuracy. However, good accuracy must be obtained not only in one measurement, but in all measurements independent of the time.

  • Hacking the Industrial Network

    Industrial control networks are highly vulnerable to intelligent remote attacks, as well as non-intelligent viruses. With threats to these networks increasing in complexity and scope, decision makers need to take action before it's too late.

    Phoenix Contact
  • Building a Bridge to Safety

    This paper examines the benefits and shortfalls of both safety PLCs and configurable safety relays. It also examines a new way of handling safety in industrial automation, "SafetyBridge" technology.

    Phoenix Contact
  • Designing with Thermocouples: Get the Most from Your Measurements

    More than 60 percent of all industrial temperature measurement applications in the U.S. use thermocouples. Despite their widespread use, there are many misconceptions about thermocouples. This paper will discuss some of the basic technical issues that engineers need to consider when applying thermocouples.

    Phoenix Contact
  • Analysis of 3S CoDeSys Security Vulnerabilities for Industrial Control System Professionals

    This White Paper explains:

    • What the 3S CoDeSys vulnerabilities are and what an attacker can do with them
    • How to find out what control/SCADA devices are affected
    • The risks and potential consequences to SCADA and control systems
    • The compensating controls that will help block known attack vectors

    A number of security vulnerabilities in the CoDeSys Control Runtime System were disclosed in January 2012. In October 2012, fully functional attack tools were also released to the general public.

    While CoDeSys is not widely known in the SCADA and ICS field, its product is embedded in many popular PLCs and industrial controllers. Many vendors are potentially vulnerable, and include devices used in all sectors of manufacturing and infrastructure. As a result, there is a risk that criminals or political groups may attempt to exploit them for either financial or ideological gain.

    This White Paper summarizes the currently known facts about these vulnerabilities and associated attack tools. It also provides guidance regarding a number of mitigations and compensating controls that operators of SCADA and ICS systems can take to protect critical operations.

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