White Papers

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  • Remote Emergency Shutdown Device Improves Safety and Performance at Oil Production Platform

    Updated government regulations created a need for a major international oil and gas company to install a direct, real-time communications link at a platform located off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico.

    ENI Petroleum is an Italian multinational oil and gas company with around 78,400 employees at sites in 77 countries. ENI operates in the oil and gas, electricity generation and sales, petrochemicals, oil field services construction and engineering industries. It has oil and natural gas production of almost two million barrels per day, with exploration and production efforts at sites throughout North American, Africa and Asia.

    One of these production locations is an oil well platform called the "Devil's Tower" that is located just off the coast of Louisiana in the Mississippi Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico. The platform rises 5,610 ft. above the sea bed. Until 2010, it was the deepest production truss spar in the world. Drill ships perform periodic operations within close proximity to subsea pipelines that transport oil and gas to and from the production platform.

    In this white paper, you will learn how a new data concentrator system allowed the control room and drill ships to communicate at a distance of more than 100 km, providing security in case of an incident while avoiding costly shutdowns.

    Jim McConahay, P.E., senior field applications engineer, Moore Industries and Richard Conway, facility engineer, ENI Petroleum
    11/08/2012
  • Radioactive Isotopes in Process Measurement

    An Objective Look at the Roles of Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60 in Nuclear Measurement Systems for Industrial Processes

    Level and density measurements in process control are performed by a number of technologies. When the process temperature, pressure, or chemistry is an issue, then nuclear measurement systems have the advantage. These are non-invasive to the vessel and unaffected by the process pressures and chemistries.

    Overall, a nuclear measurement system used for process control consists of a gamma energy emitter and detector. An emitter is placed on one side of a vessel to broadcast a beam of energy to the opposite side of the vessel. The detector is placed in the beam on the opposite side of the vessel. The detector will scintillate in the presence of gamma energy and register counts proportional to the field strength. When the process value (level or specific gravity) is low, the detector will register a high number of counts since less gamma energy is blocked by the process material. When the process value is high, more of the gamma energy is blocked which leads to fewer counts.

    The two most common gamma emitters used for level and density process measurements are isotopes of cobalt and cesium. The goal of this article is an objective comparison of the roles of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 in process measurement. This will be accomplished by reviewing the properties of the two materials and then comparing the use of the materials in process measurement.

    Vega Americas Inc.
    11/05/2012
  • Augment Your Staff: Gain Agility and Expertise Through Flexible Staffing

    For many process plants, there are three distinct tasks with respect to their control, instrumentation and information systems -- otherwise known as the automation system. The first task category is operations. and maintenance. The plant must be kept up and running with minimal downtime, with maintenance, performed as needed.

    The second task includes continuous improvements. The existing automation system must be made to increase throughput, reduce downtime, cut energy costs, improve quality and make other enhancements to the production processes. These improvements are necessary to stay competitive in worldwide markets, and firms that neglect this task will fall hopelessly behind.

    Third, capital projects must be planned and executed for a variety of reasons, from adding capacity to regulatory compliance to changing the range of products produced. In many process plants, operations and maintenance tasks can consume all the available automation professional man-hours from on-site staff, leaving little or no time for continuous improvements and capital projects. In the worst cases, many plants find it difficult to recruit and maintain even the minimal staffing required for operations and maintenance.

    There are two possible approaches to address these staffing issues. The first is to add more permanent staff at the plant level, and the second is to seek assistance from an outside service provider such as a systems integrator -- also known as staff augmentation or outsourcing. Adding permanent staff can be problematic at many process plants for a number of reasons as explained below.

    As detailed in a recent Control magazine cover story, demand for experienced automation personnel relative to supply is at an all-time high by many indicators. A quote from the article illustrates the point.

    "The demand for process automation professionals is high, and the talent pool is small and shrinking," said Alan Carty, president of recruiting firm Automationtechies in Minneapolis. "Systems integrators, end users and process control product manufacturers are all seeking these people. I've been recruiting for 12 years, and I feel that current demand relative to supply is at an all-time peak."

    Exacerbating the situation, many process plant managers have trouble recruiting workers to their. specific locales, which are almost always far from the urban areas favored by many automation, professionals, particularly recent graduates.

    Another significant issue primarily affects staffing for plant automation operations and maintenance positions, and that's the requirement for 24/7/365 support. When faced with the choice between working regular hours versus being on-call around the clock -- including weekends and holidays - many automation professionals, opt for the former.

    Even if these problems are overcome with sufficient staffing for operations and maintenance, providing sufficient personnel for continuous improvement and capital projects remains an issue.

    This task in particular often requires specialized skills that existing plant operations and maintenance staff may not possess. Furthermore, many continuous improvement projects and larger capital projects often require relatively high staffing levels for implementation, then much lower staffing levels for ongoing operations and maintenance.

    Maverick Technologies
    10/30/2012
  • Why Migrate Legacy Control Systems?

    Justifying automation projects today is extraordinarily difficult. Honeywell offers a wide range of migration options and is the only vendor that continues to support 30+ year-old control systems. These migration solutions provide access to up-to-date technology without having to "rip and replace."

    Honeywell Process Solutions
    10/26/2012
  • Six Best Practices for Wind Farm Operation

    A high-speed, industrial-grade network infrastructure offers wind farm operators many benefits, including improved operational management, visibility and access to key data. Real-time data access enables operators to monitor wind turbine uptime, performance and power output – even from remote locations. This data, which is used to track power generation efficiency and trends, provides predictive information that is critical to "Smart Grid" technology. After describing a typical wind farm environment, this white paper will explore six best practices that should be considered for effective wind farm operation. It will also discusses how to use industrial Ethernet switches to assure maximum uptime.

    Red Lion
    10/26/2012
  • M2M-Building a Connected World

    Juniper Research forecasts that there will be a total of 400 million connected devices in service across all industry segments by the end of the forecast period in 2012. From a sector perspective, the last 18 months have seen significant take up of embedded consumer electronics devices, specifically eReaders, a trend which is expected to continue over the forecast period. In addition consumer and commercial telemantics will show increasing device numbers as automotive manufacturers aim to embrace embedded connectivity in the next five years in a new vehicle sales.

    While the reality of the M2M market may have fallen short of expectations since its early days, in the 2011 to 2012 period Juniper Research has observed an increasingly coherent approach to the market of both operators and M2M-enablers. On one hand, the interfaces built by companies to manage devices are becoming more sophisticated as the power of the Internet and the cloud are leveraged to their full extent. On the other hand, the automation of delivery and control means that the costs associated with M2M roll outs are reduced, improving the economic viability of M2M projects.

    This coincides with a reappraisal by operators of how M2M will deliver revenue, away from standard revenue-per-device towards a revenue model which is defined by the service that is delivered. Both operators and M2M enablers now see the M2M market as a market in its own right, with its own characteristics with respect to revenue generation.

    Juniper Research believes that the combination of cloud-based infrastructure and the introduction of technologies such as Bluetooth low-power at an affordable cost will give the market further impetus, while the acquisition route is strengthening some of the most respected M2M companies, affording them an increased level of sophistication.

    Juniper Research
    10/24/2012
  • DCS Migration Strategy and Implementation

    There are four main strategic decisions you should consider before upgrading your outdated Distributed Control System (DCS) to a new automation system. Download this paper to learn how to define your migration strategy and make the switch with as little risk as possible.

    Rockwell
    10/23/2012
  • Industrial Wireless e-Books

    Access Apprion's e-books on industrial wireless technology and learn about industrial monitoring software and equipment, wireless network systems and wireless safety. Any or all four e-books listed below can be downloaded.
    - Using Video for Security, Compliance, Control and Monitoring
    - A Guide to Managing Industrial Wireless Networks
    - How to Improve Safety at Your Plant with Wireless
    - Wireless Systems: Make Non-Traditional Measurements Possible
    Learn how wireless safety applications mean less risk and more rewards at lower costs.

    Apprion
    10/15/2012
  • Seven Common KPIs for Production Monitoring

    Visual management is the process of displaying critical information that helps to drive productivity throughout the organization by increasing efficiency, quality and uptime.

    Red Lion
    10/15/2012
  • Applying Color Science to Design Effective Human-Machine Interfaces

    Human operators are a key part of any process control system. As such, they constitute part of a complex, causal chain of overall system processing. Human machine interfaces (HMIs) form a key link in that chain by bridging the physical world where processes reside with the perceptual reconstruction and representation of those processes in the heads of human operators and supervisors.

    If an HMI design gives rise to a flawed or inaccurate representation of a process, then error and suboptimal task performance may result. HMIs have become increasingly important links in this chain for two reasons. First, the arrival of distributed control systems (DCS) in the 1970s distanced operators from the physical entities they controlled, requiring all interaction be mediated by HMIs. Second, the ongoing introduction of complex automation into process control is increasingly changing human operators into supervisors. Supervision has complex decision-making requirements that must all be conveyed via HMIs.

    Download this entire white paper to learn more.

    Dirk Beer, Harvey Smallman, Cindy Scott, Mark Nixon
    10/09/2012
  • ABB Review: Special Report on IEC61850

    Communication is more than exchanging data; it means globally understandable information based on syntax and semantics. This is the theory behind IEC 61850, the topic of this issue of ABB Review Special Report.

    ABB
    10/08/2012
  • Calculating Fiber Signal Loss and Distance

    As the need for bandwidth rises and the cost of fiber-optic cable drops, fiber is beginning to replace copper cable in many network topologies. This article describes fiber's physical attributes and explains how to calculate signal loss and the communications range for a fiber installation.

    B&B Electronics
    10/08/2012
  • Don't Compromise on Safety

    End Users implementing automation projects today face capital reduction pressures that have given raise to new procurement strategies. On the surface they appear to save money but companies need to be aware that they may also expose your company to unnecessary risks. This white paper discusses those risks and how to avoid them.

    HIMA Americas
    10/08/2012
  • Adapting Gigabit Ethernet for the Industrial Environment

    With the advancement of computer and data transmission technologies, systems formerly reserved for the office environment are now critical components of the manufacturing floor. The demands of factory automation, in addition to computer hardware and software, have brought the wire and cable networking products that interconnect these technologies into the industrial setting as well.

    With the vast differences between an office and an industrial environment, networking cables such as gigabit Ethernet have had to adapt to these harsh new surroundings, not only from a physical perspective but from a performance perspective as well, in order to function reliably.

    This white paper discusses the constructional differences between standard Gigabit Ethernet and the specifications required for similar cables utilized in an industrial manufacturing environment. Additionally applications for these ruggedized designs are also reviewed.

    C&M Corporation
    09/26/2012
  • Introduction to the 2-Wire Transmitter and 4-20mA Control Loop

    In this paper, we review the operation and advantages of the 4-20mA transmission standard and loop-powered transmitters. The discussion explains sink vs. source wiring, power requirements, voltage drops, proper grounding, transmission distance, signal noise, live zero calibration and more.

    Acromag
    09/24/2012
  • The Benefits of Using a Documenting Calibrator

    One of the benefits using a documenting calibrator is to be able to determine how accurate an instrument or sensor is. However, many times in the calibration process, documentation is a step that process manufacturers skip because they lack the resources and the time to do so. Although most instruments are very accurate these days, regulatory bodies often need to know just how inaccurate a particular instrument is and whether it drifts in and out of a specified tolerance over time. Download this white paper and learn how using a documenting calibrator can can help cut down costs and time, minimize manual errors while improving efficiency, accuracy and quality in the calibration process.

    Beamex
    09/10/2012
  • A Comparison of WirelessHART and ISA100.11a

    The technology advancements in measurement instruments and final control elements provide greater process insight, reduce engineering costs and contribute to improving the overall operational performance of the plant. These instruments are often collectively referred to as smart devices.

    Emerson Process Management
    09/04/2012
  • Top Five Missed Opportunities with HMI Alarms and Events

    With any new tech device, whether a cell phone or plant-floor controller, there is inevitably a helpful feature or two you overlooked while reading the manual or taking the introductory tutorial. Although these technological devices still perform their desired, basic functions - discovering an underutilized feature makes you wonder how you ever operated the device without it.

    Interacting with alarms is one of the basic functions your operators expect from their human-machine interface (HMI) software. However, if you're only using the standard alarming functions, you may be missing out on lesser-known features that could help you save time, ease troubleshooting and reduce headaches. The five FactoryTalk Alarms and Events functions listed below are often overlooked and underutilized. See where they fit and if you can find some hidden tools in your plant-floor applications.

    Tony Carrara, Rockwell Automation
    08/29/2012
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