White Papers

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  • Present State and a Futuristic Vision of Motor Drive Technology

    One of the main driving force behind the industrial revolution was the invention of the electric motor more than a century ago. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simple and has ultimately aided the advancement of human kind. The advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motor to new realms that was inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors along with digital controls have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. Use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency.

    Yaskawa Electric Corporation has been at the forefront of technology, creating reliable drives that consistently push the envelope of engineering achievement. This paper reviews Yaskawa's role in the development and application of the inverter technology to AC motor drives and introduces some futuristic vision for the motor drive technology. The development of more efficient, more powerful electric motor drives to power the demands of the future is important for achieving energy savings, environmentally harmonious drives that do not pollute the electrical power system, and improving productivity. Yaskawa wants to be an integral part of this future and hopes to contribute significantly to achieve this.

    Mahesh M. Swamy and Tsuneo Kume, Yaskawa Electric America
  • High Slip Braking Software

    The techniques for braking of high inertial loads to a stop traditionally involved either Dynamic Braking or DC Injection Braking technology.

    This article examines a new load-braking alternative called High-Slip Braking (HSB). We identify the different aspects of HSB, look at what it does, how it works, and how it is different from other braking methods. We also provide examples of "real world" successes, and discuss the new technology's cost effectiveness.

    High-slip braking allows the stopping of larger inertial loads without the need for expensive and bulky braking options such as Dynamic Braking packages. Inertial loads involve only inertia and friction and given enough time, will tend to stop on their own when power is removed. HSB is most effective in applications involving infrequent stopping of inertial rotating loads where speed control during stopping is not required. Typical applications of this sort include; laundry equipment, centrifuges, large commercial fans, punch presses, blowers and mixers. Do not use HSB on overhauling static loads like; hoists, winches, elevators, product lifters, and similar applications. HSB is applicable only for complete stopping of the load and not as a means of braking for speed changes.

    The HSB feature has proven to cut braking times in half without requiring extra equipment. The overall stopping time, however, does depend on the inertia of the load being stopped and the characteristics of the motor. HSB can achieve braking torque of more than 100% of the full motor torque.

    Mike Rucinski, Yaskawa Electric America
  • General Purpose Permanent Magnet Motor Drive without Speed and Position Sensor

    1. Power consumption by electric motors
    Worldwide, about two-thirds of the electricity is consumed by motors used in powers industrial facilities. According to DOE report, the motor systems are responsible for 63% of all electricity consumed by U.S. industry and electric bill represents more than 97% of total motor operating costs.

    Rapidly increasing energy cost and strong global interest in reducing carbon dioxide emissions are encouraging industry to pay more attention to high-efficiency motors.

    Permanent Magnet (PM) motors have higher efficiency than induction motors because there are no I2R losses of the rotor. But widespread use of the PM motors has been discouraged by price and requirement of a speed encoder.

    Recent release of low-cost high-performance CPUs and establishment of the speed sensorless control theory (hereinafter referred to as an open-loop vector control method) enables the advent of a general-purpose open-loop control PM drive. In this white paper, the open-loop PM motor control technology is introduced and its characteristics and major application fields are described.

    Jun Kang, Yaskawa Electric America
  • Evaluation of an Alternate Soft Charge Circuit for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) with diode rectifier front end are typically equipped with a resistorcontactor arrangement to limit the inrush current into the dc bus capacitors, thereby providing a means for soft charging the dc bus capacitors. Because of the mechanical nature of the magnetic contactor typically used in VFDs, there exists a concern for fatigue. In addition, during a brown out condition, typically the contactor remains closed and when the voltage recovers, the ensuing transient is often large enough to possibly cause unfavorable influence to surrounding components in the VFD. Many researchers and application engineers have thought about this issue and many are actively seeking non-mechanical solutions in a cost effective manner.

    In this paper, a new topology to soft charge the dc bus capacitor is proposed. Other techniques that have been evaluated are also introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Experimental tests to show the feasibility of the proposed idea is also provided.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
  • A Hybrid 18-Pulse Rectification Scheme for Diode Front End Variable Frequency Drives

    Diode rectifier with large DC bus capacitors, used in the front ends of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs), draw discontinuous current from the power system resulting in current distortion and hence voltage distortion. Typically, the power system can handle current distortion without showing signs of voltage distortion. However, when the majority of the load on a distribution feeder is made up of VFDs, current distortion becomes an important issue. Multi-pulse techniques to reduce input harmonics are popular because they do not interfere with the existing power system either from higher conducted EMI when active techniques are used or from possible resonance, when capacitor based filters are employed.

    In this paper, a new 18-pulse topology is proposed that has two six-pulse rectifiers powered via a phase-shifting isolation transformer, while the third six-pulse rectifier is fed directly from the AC source via a matching-impedance. This idea relies on harmonic current cancellation strategy rather than the flux cancellation method and results in lower overall harmonics. It is also seen to be smaller in size and weight, and lower in cost compared to an isolation transformer. Experimental results are given to validate the concept.

    Mahesh Swamy, Tsuneo J. Kume and Noriyuki Takada, Yaskawa Electric America
  • Understanding the Concepts Behind Short Circuit Current Ratings (SCCR)

    The date of January 1, 2005 sits vividly in the minds of manufacturers within the industrial control panel field. That's because that's the day when the National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) National Electrical Code (NEC) 2005 Article 409 officially went into effect. The code required that short circuit current rating be clearly marked on the industrial control panels in order to be inspected and approved. The markings made it easier to verify proper over-current protection against hazards such as fires and shocks on components or equipment, whether it be for initial installation or relocation. It was the beginning of an era when things would become a little more complicated, but for all the right reasons of ensuring more safety within the industrial world.

    The main vision of the NFPA is to reduce or limit the burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life by providing and advocating scientifically based consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. These codes and standards were established to minimize the possibility of and effects of fire and other risks. Due to misinterpretations, inconsistencies and advancements in technology over the years, they have had to update their codes with consistency in order to comply with existing standards.

    Therefore, the focus of this paper will look at the changes that occurred due to Article 409, the impacts that it had, who was affected by the code and how to comply with the code. Precautions like this article had been enforced in the past, but they were too vague, so people found ways to get around them.

    The biggest change that took place within the article was the new requirements adopted for industrial machinery electrical panels, industrial control panels, some HVAC equipment, meter disconnect switches and various motor controllers. For the purpose of this paper, we will be concentrating on industrial control panels which are specified as assemblies rated for 600V or less and intended for general use. All in all, it states that the above products must feature a safe design and be clearly marked with specific information concerning Short Circuit Current Rating (SCCR) in efforts of aiding with the designing, building, installation and inspection of the control panels. This way, the above users can both reference and apply all the needed requirements for all new products and installations as well as for modifying existing ones.

    Yaskawa Electric America
  • Application of PHMSA Rule Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Effective Feb. 2, 2010, the PHMSA rule: 49 CFR Parts 192, 195 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors imposes control room management requirements for all regulated gas and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper gives an overview of requirements and time line to comply. Learn more.

    TiPS Incorporated
  • Proven Techniques and Best Practices for Managing Infrastructure Changes

    When a business expands an existing facility, adds a new location, incorporates an influx of new users, or upgrades an existing infrastructure - it's vital to ensure network readiness and validate infrastructure changes to optimize network performance, minimize user downtime and reduce problems after implementation. This white paper describes a methodology to manage network changes that meets the need for speed of implementation without sacrificing accuracy.

    Changes in business place demands on the network -and the network professionals who administer it -to expand and accommodate different users, additional users, remote locations and more. Situations driving this increased need to manage and validate infrastructure changes include:
    - Mergers and acquisitions: The network established for 50 users must now accommodate 500.
    - Business growth into a new wing or facilities: The current network must handle the increased load of new users, applications and infrastructure.
    - New technologies: As part of a corporate-wide upgrade, a new technology must be validated for all users before implementation.
    - Upgrading the network: When installing new infrastructure devices, the configuration must be validated as correct.

    Regardless of what drives the change, one commonality is the need for rapid and accurate completion of the project. Too often, however, changes are reacted to rather than managed proactively, leading to future problems. In part, this is due to the need for fast deployment: All of these changes must happen as quickly as possible, so shortcuts are taken and steps skipped in the process. Accuracy suffers as a result. And ironically, both the network and IT staffs are slowed down because expanding or upgrading networks without upfront due diligence leads to time-consuming problems and troubleshooting later.

    Fluke Networks
  • Guided Wave Radar vs. Differential Pressure Transmitters for Liquid Level Measurement

    Differential pressure transmitters were first implemented in the 1950s but are still one of the most commonly used technologies for measuring liquid level in process industries. In many areas of the industrial level measurement market - including chemical, petrochemical, refining, and electric power generation—differential pressure transmitters have captured the vast majority of level applications; and still represent the largest worldwide sales volume of process level measurement equipment. Their popularity and installed base is so prevalent because DP transmitters are versatile, cost-effective, and due to their long history, plant personnel are familiar with their operation.

  • Seven Ways Today's Distributed Control Systems (DCS) Can Improve Your Operations

    In the past, DCS systems were large, expensive and very complex. This drove many control engineers to use programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and human machine interface (HMI) in order to lower cost. Today, these implementations are consistently more expensive than DCS systems for the same process or batch application. Many forward thinking engineers using PLCs and HMI in process or batch applications have learned there are ways to significantly reduce costs, speed implementation and improve operations. Download this white paper to learn key advantages of DCS systems over PLC/HMI engineered systems and the typical value of each.

  • Effective Platform Security Strategy

    Despite the heightened concern for energy infrastructure security-influenced in part by growing threats from international terrorism and piracy-mitigating physical security risks in the world's energy producing regions is a challenge that governments and companies have grappled with for decades. The paper discusses key requirements for an effective platform security strategy, and describes the latest technology enabling an integrated security management system.

  • High Availability for Non-Traditional Discrete and Process Applications

    With the significant threat that system interruptions pose to business performance and profitability, businesses are increasingly seeking to gain a competitive advantage by re-engineering their solutions, driving the need to deliver higher levels of availability.

    Commonly used in process industries, high availability solutions can also benefit discrete manufacturers that have high-speed, complex operations, where the economic impact of even a short period of downtime or momentary interruptions can have huge financial, operational, and reputational costs.

    This paper demonstrates the financial upside of investing in high availability technology and takes a closer look at the latest features and benefits of such solutions for continuous, efficient operations.

    GE Intelligent Platforms
  • Achieving 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance Using CENTUM VP

    This technical white paper will discuss Yokogawa's CENTUM VP DCS (Distributed Control System) product, hereafter referred to as "CENTUM VP", and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records / Electronic Signatures Rule.

    CENTUM VP Batch Management is the optional Batch control function for CENTUM VP, which provides recipe management and process management functionality based upon the ISA-88 Batch Control System standard. This whitepaper addresses the use of CENTUM VP and the Batch Management function.

    A detailed analysis of Part 11 was performed, the results of which are listed in the Detailed Part 11 Compliance section (section 5) of this document, which supports the compliance of the CENTUM VP system to Part 11.

    CENTUM VP is a comprehensive software package containing configurable functions that support Part 11 compliance (audit trails, electronic signatures and electronic records). The system capitalizes on its Part 11 compliance attributes in the marketing strategy of supplying FDA regulated industries with state of the art automation capabilities.

    User training and education as well as the development and utilization of policies and procedures are key components of Part 11 compliance which must be established by the user.

  • Logic Developer Process Edition Function Blocks

    Delivering increased precision and enabling advanced regulatory control strategies for continuous process control.

    Process control in the most generic sense involves continuously controlling an operation or sequence of operations that changes the state of matter; specifically, this includes changing the state of energy, chemical composition, and/or physical dimension of a substance.

    As complex programs need to interface with various aspects of a comprehensive production system, Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks from GE Intelligent Platforms add precision and ease of use to reduce the learning curve for engineers, enable higher operational efficiency, and lower development costs.

    This white paper helps engineers and programmers explore the power provided by Logic Developer Process Edition function blocks that allow changes in the state of matter to be controlled to generate beneficial outputs that enhance life (e.g., fuel in, electricity out), and illustrates how businesses can use these function blocks to realize advanced regulatory control strategies. It also explains the differences between Logic Developer Process Edition and GE's Proficy Machine Edition PLC Logic Developer programming software, which is optimal for leveraging an integrated development environment for discrete, motion, and multi-target control applications.

    GE Intelligent Platforms
  • Advances in Low Voltage Motor Control Center (MCC) Technology Help Reduce Arc-Flash Hazards and Minimize Risks

    Selecting the right MCC equipment leads to improved plant safety, helping protect people and capital investments.

    Measures to increase equipment and personnel safety in manufacturing are reflected in new approaches and technologies designed to help minimize the risk of workplace dangers. One rapidly growing area of focus is reducing the potentially serious hazards associated with arc-flash events. This white paper examines the causes of arc flash, discusses the standards guiding arc-flash safety and details the role arc-resistant motor control centers (MCCs) play in helping contain arc energy. It also highlights the key features of an effective arc-resistant MCC design.

    Managing safety hazards and reducing risks are top priorities for manufacturers across all sectors of industry. With a multitude of potential dangers and new ones continuously emerging, companies must be diligent in their ongoing efforts while considering new approaches and technologies to improve plant safety. One rapidly growing area of focus is implementing techniques and practices designed to reduce hazards and minimize risk for workers who must enter an area with an electrical arc-flash potential.

    Rockwell Automation
  • Process Control Domain - Security Requirements for Vendors

    This document specifies requirements and gives recommendations for IT security to be fulfilled by vendors of process control and automation systems to be used in Process Control Domains (PCDs).

    This covers both:
    - Policy; addressing the vendor's organization, IT security processes, technological solutions and governance of IT security.
    - Commissioning and maintenance

    When a vendor's solution complies with this set of requirements, the solution is considered by the WIB to be PCD Security Compatible.

    Download this paper to learn more.

  • Achieving Next-Generation Connectivity

    Industrial-strength Ethernet, bolstered by its wireless component, is giving facilities the tools they need to operate lean and mean and succeed in an uncertain economy. As companies seek to identify and eliminate waste, continually improve processes, and respond to the increasing product demands of its customers, they are learning to do more with less, whether it is resources, staff, or money. This white paper examines some reasons and factors influencing the success of the Ethernet infrastructure, while looking at the accelerating presence of its wireless component.

  • Advanced Process Control: Quick and Easy Energy Savings

    In today's manufacturing environment, there is an urgency to increase operating efficiencies, and to do it quickly. One area of improvement that can produce immediate results is reducing energy consumption. It's good for the environment and it's good for the bottom line. "Energy management," therefore, has become a common best practice, but there is more there than meets the eye. Typically it implies rigorously modeling all or a major portion of the plant, coupled with the use of real-time optimization technology. While this approach has been used successfully, there are other simpler, faster options for reducing energy consumption in a manufacturing plant. Learn what these options are.

    Paul Kesseler, Manager, Advanced Process Control Practice, Global Consulting Group, Invensys Operations Management
  • One Code to Save Millions: ASME Codes and Standards Guide Dominion in Efficiency, Cost Savings and Safety

    In order to stay on track with technology and provide the safest and most efficient working environment at Dominion's nuclear power plants, Dominion follows the codes and standards developed by ASME. ASME's mission is for its Standards & Certification organization "to develop the preeminent, universally applicable codes, standards, conformity assessment programs, and related products and services for the benefit of humanity." These codes and standards have a significant impact on the industry and save companies millions of dollars per year as well as assist in accident prevention and the development of more efficient production and operational practices. This case study illustrates how ASME has helped Dominion become more efficient, increasing cost savings and improving safety measures.

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