Ethernet is penetrating ever deeper into distributed control systems to provide real-time control with direct connectivity to a wider range of devices while the insatiable demand for speed (e.g. 10/40/100G) from commercial applications are driving continual advancements in Ethernet technologies.
This expanded deployment of Ethernet in manufacturing has triggered convergence of disparate network technologies over a single Ethernet-based infrastructure, and this trend has left the controls engineer with new and more choices regarding how to specify and install the necessary network physical infrastructure. It becomes clear that network convergence continues unabated, thereby generating new and expanded network physical infrastructure options.02/09/2009
With the rising cost of energy, the use of variable frequency drives (VFDs) is growing at an increasing rate. By optimizing the frequency of a three-phase alternating-current (AC) induction motors voltage supply, a VFD controls the motors speed and torque while providing energy savings. And, these energy savings can be quite substantial 20% or more making VFDs a green solution as well as a wise money-saving investment.
However, in order to be truly green, a technology must be sustainable as well as energy efficient. Yet the currents induced on motor shafts by VFDs can wreak havoc with motor bearings, dramatically shortening motor life and severely diminishing the reliability of systems. To mitigate these currents and realize the full potential of VFDs, a cost-effective method of shaft grounding is essential.02/02/2009
Integrators frequently use OPC technology to connect one Industrial Automation system (PLC, DCS, SCADA, HVAC, etc) with another so data can be shared between the two systems. Because OPC technology is based on the Client/Server architecture, the challenge is that two OPC Servers cannot communicate with each other directly. A variety of vendors provide an intermediate software solution, generically called an OPC Bridge, to facilitate this sort of communication. This whitepaper discusses the concept of the OPC Bridge, the solution architecture, required software components, and various features to help Integrators differentiate between different OPC Bridge products.01/26/2009
This paper describes an application of the IEEE 1588 standard to Industrial Automation. Key application use cases are identified that can benefit from time-based control techniques to improve performance results over traditional control methods. This paper will also briefly discuss how the 1588 standard may be adopted to suit these applications. Application problems specific to industrial automation are enumerated and candidate solutions described.01/20/2009
This white paper describes how SNMP is applied to asset management and transportation of "shadow data," information on equipment maintenance and security within the SCADA system. Since SNMP has emerged as a very efficient vehicle for transportation of this information, it is feasible for addition to existing systems. The white paper includes descriptions of smart function blocks, which significantly reduce programming efforts when used with Semaphore's T-BOX RTU and Kingfisher RTU product lines.01/15/2009
The increased use of plant floor automation to achieve production goals has created a dependency on PLCs, PC control systems and programmable automation. These devices and their logic programs are costly to develop but vital to the running of the plant, and are viewed by most companies as corporate assets. It is incumbent on plant and corporate management to insure that proper safeguards are in place to protect and manage change in these assets. This paper examines the sources and types of changes that take place in plant automation environments, and the considerations and approaches necessary to safeguard your automation systems through the effective use of a Change Management System (CMS).01/15/2009
This white paper provides information about how data loggers can make earning LEED for Existing Buildings O&M credits simple.01/15/2009
AutoSave increases productivity and reduces downtime and safety risks for Nestle Purina.
As automation devices have grown more complex and have incorporated more plant data in their operation, there is an increased need for programming changes to continue smooth operation or improve performance. In environments requiring frequent changes, it is not uncommon for code to be lost or changes overwritten resulting in increased downtime and decreased productivity.12/09/2008
Temperature is certainly among the most commonly measured parameters in industry, science, and academia. Recently, the growth of wireless instrumentation technology, along with some clever innovations, has provided new ways to apply temperature measurement sensors combined with personal computers to collect, tabulate, and analyze the data obtained. For complex, multi-sensor applications, wireless devices provide a means to eliminate the nuisance of running multiple leads over long distances through harnesses or conduit to a control room, instrument panel, or equipment rack, while keeping track of which leads are which. For simpler one or two sensor applications, it means installing the wireless sensor, setting up the receiver, and being done. There are now so many wireless transmitting and receiving devices available for temperature measurement that nearly any application can benefit from their use. In any case, it is certainly worth a closer look. As a bonus, most of the devices discussed below also work with humidity and barometric pressure sensors.11/21/2008
OPC UA (Unified Architecture) represents the OPC Foundations most recent set of specifications for Process Control and Automation system interconnectivity. This paper explains OPC UA from the perspective of the organization that will benefit from the connectivity, in other words: the End User.
The challenge for companies implementing OPC UA is to ensure their data is secure from unauthorized access.
This whitepaper discusses the following:
- OPC Overview
- OPC communication with DCOM
- OPC via Web Services
- Object Oriented Data Model
- Improving Existing OPC Specifications
- Backwards Compatibility and Tunneling
- OPC at the Enterprise level
The white paper reviews the history and development path of Foundation SIF technology, and provides insights into topics such as: SIF product registration, conformance to international standards, diagnostics functions and benefits, and future challenges. It also outlines key advantages of Foundation SIF at the safety system layer.11/21/2008
The pH value is the most frequently used process variable in analysis. The pH value is of outstanding importance in water and environmental analysis and in almost all sectors of industry. Whether the cheese in a dairy is of the right quality, the water in a drinking water supply causes corrosion damage, or the precipitation in a treatment plant for waste water from an electroplating process occurs at the optimal point, all depend on such parameters as the pH value.10/30/2008
Conductivity measurement is an easily performed measurement technique for determining and monitoring the total salt concentration in water. It is encountered in many areas of industrial and environmental analysis. Whether it concerns cleaning the filling lines in a dairy, or protection of the cooling water system in a power station, the correct procedures always depend on the conductivity value.10/30/2008
As a manufacturer of measuring systems (transmitter/controllers and sensors) for resistance/conductivity and pH measurement, we are confronted almost every day with the uncertainty prevailing among customers, end users and project planners when it comes to the proper measurement techniques and equipment for high-purity water.
This booklet provides assistance and information in this field. It is intended to give you a generally understandable background and explanation of the fundamental terminology used in high-purity water measurement, and thus contribute to demystifying the subject. Furthermore, it also presents the procedure that is generally valid for calibrating and testing a high-purity water measuring system, and is currently still firmly based on the American regulations (USP/ASTM).10/30/2008
Together with the pH value, the redox voltage is one of the most frequent process variables in industrial and municipal effluent plants, as well as in installations for monitoring drinking water and bathing (swimming pool) water.10/30/2008
For reasons of hygiene, drinking water, or any other water that people come into direct or indirect contact with, often has to be treated with compounds that destroy any micro-organisms contained in it. Chlorine, chlorine compounds or ozone are very often used as disinfectants. In this sensitive area, a high level of safety for the consumer is an absolute requirement, and for this reason, systems are used for fully automatic monitoring, control and recording of the disinfectant concentration.
Amperometric sensors provide the best means of monitoring the disinfectant concentration. This technical publication will present the electrochemical fundamentals and the application technology of such sensors in an easily understood form, for the interested reader.10/30/2008
The methods of determination of hydrogen peroxide and PAA are not continuous measurements methods, but methods whereby the concentration is measured for samples taken at certain times.
These analytical methods are laboratory procedures requiring a considerable outlay in personnel and time.
In order to regulate the concentration of a disinfectant, it is advantageous if a electrical signal is available that is continuous and proportional to the concentration of disinfectant. This signal can then be used as the input signal for controlling a disinfectant metering system, i.e. the concentration can be completely automatically regulated.
A membrane-covered amperometric measuring cell can be used for monitoring the peracetic acid concentration and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide.10/30/2008
Measurement of the concentration of ammonia in aqueous solutions is a requirement in many application areas, such as for coolant monitoring and laboratory measurement. A fast and simple way of measuring ammonia can be achieved by using a membranecovered, gas-sensitive sensor that operates on a potentiometric principle.
But for successful measurement, several factors must be observed when handling and using of ammonia sensors. This brochure is intended to provide practical help for the users in these matters. A special emphasis is placed on the two application situations mentioned above.
Furthermore, the construction and mode of operation of the sensor is also briefly described.10/30/2008
The paper provides an in depth tutorial of how to help secure networks in production plants. Its recommendations are based on latest platform technology, current standards and WinCC and PCS 7 product features. It offers comprehensive coverage of security concepts and up-to-date detail documents that explore specific solutions and recommended configuration based on specific products or topics.10/27/2008
The "WinCC Security Concept" documentation contains recommended and mandatory procedures for planning and building secure, networked WinCC automation solutions with connected Web clients, SIMATIC IT applications and office networks based on customer specifications. This documentation serves as both a reference and a guide for network administrators working in the following areas:
- Configuration of WinCC
- Commissioning and servicing of WinCC
- Management of company networks
It is intended to facilitate cooperation.10/20/2008