OPC UA (Unified Architecture) represents the OPC Foundations most recent set of specifications for Process Control and Automation system interconnectivity. This paper explains OPC UA from the perspective of the organization that will benefit from the connectivity, in other words: the End User.
The challenge for companies implementing OPC UA is to ensure their data is secure from unauthorized access.
This whitepaper discusses the following:
- OPC Overview
- OPC communication with DCOM
- OPC via Web Services
- Object Oriented Data Model
- Improving Existing OPC Specifications
- Backwards Compatibility and Tunneling
- OPC at the Enterprise level
The white paper reviews the history and development path of Foundation SIF technology, and provides insights into topics such as: SIF product registration, conformance to international standards, diagnostics functions and benefits, and future challenges. It also outlines key advantages of Foundation SIF at the safety system layer.11/21/2008
The pH value is the most frequently used process variable in analysis. The pH value is of outstanding importance in water and environmental analysis and in almost all sectors of industry. Whether the cheese in a dairy is of the right quality, the water in a drinking water supply causes corrosion damage, or the precipitation in a treatment plant for waste water from an electroplating process occurs at the optimal point, all depend on such parameters as the pH value.10/30/2008
Conductivity measurement is an easily performed measurement technique for determining and monitoring the total salt concentration in water. It is encountered in many areas of industrial and environmental analysis. Whether it concerns cleaning the filling lines in a dairy, or protection of the cooling water system in a power station, the correct procedures always depend on the conductivity value.10/30/2008
As a manufacturer of measuring systems (transmitter/controllers and sensors) for resistance/conductivity and pH measurement, we are confronted almost every day with the uncertainty prevailing among customers, end users and project planners when it comes to the proper measurement techniques and equipment for high-purity water.
This booklet provides assistance and information in this field. It is intended to give you a generally understandable background and explanation of the fundamental terminology used in high-purity water measurement, and thus contribute to demystifying the subject. Furthermore, it also presents the procedure that is generally valid for calibrating and testing a high-purity water measuring system, and is currently still firmly based on the American regulations (USP/ASTM).10/30/2008
Together with the pH value, the redox voltage is one of the most frequent process variables in industrial and municipal effluent plants, as well as in installations for monitoring drinking water and bathing (swimming pool) water.10/30/2008
For reasons of hygiene, drinking water, or any other water that people come into direct or indirect contact with, often has to be treated with compounds that destroy any micro-organisms contained in it. Chlorine, chlorine compounds or ozone are very often used as disinfectants. In this sensitive area, a high level of safety for the consumer is an absolute requirement, and for this reason, systems are used for fully automatic monitoring, control and recording of the disinfectant concentration.
Amperometric sensors provide the best means of monitoring the disinfectant concentration. This technical publication will present the electrochemical fundamentals and the application technology of such sensors in an easily understood form, for the interested reader.10/30/2008
The methods of determination of hydrogen peroxide and PAA are not continuous measurements methods, but methods whereby the concentration is measured for samples taken at certain times.
These analytical methods are laboratory procedures requiring a considerable outlay in personnel and time.
In order to regulate the concentration of a disinfectant, it is advantageous if a electrical signal is available that is continuous and proportional to the concentration of disinfectant. This signal can then be used as the input signal for controlling a disinfectant metering system, i.e. the concentration can be completely automatically regulated.
A membrane-covered amperometric measuring cell can be used for monitoring the peracetic acid concentration and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide.10/30/2008
Measurement of the concentration of ammonia in aqueous solutions is a requirement in many application areas, such as for coolant monitoring and laboratory measurement. A fast and simple way of measuring ammonia can be achieved by using a membranecovered, gas-sensitive sensor that operates on a potentiometric principle.
But for successful measurement, several factors must be observed when handling and using of ammonia sensors. This brochure is intended to provide practical help for the users in these matters. A special emphasis is placed on the two application situations mentioned above.
Furthermore, the construction and mode of operation of the sensor is also briefly described.10/30/2008
The paper provides an in depth tutorial of how to help secure networks in production plants. Its recommendations are based on latest platform technology, current standards and WinCC and PCS 7 product features. It offers comprehensive coverage of security concepts and up-to-date detail documents that explore specific solutions and recommended configuration based on specific products or topics.10/27/2008
The "WinCC Security Concept" documentation contains recommended and mandatory procedures for planning and building secure, networked WinCC automation solutions with connected Web clients, SIMATIC IT applications and office networks based on customer specifications. This documentation serves as both a reference and a guide for network administrators working in the following areas:
- Configuration of WinCC
- Commissioning and servicing of WinCC
- Management of company networks
It is intended to facilitate cooperation.10/20/2008
Why is Lack of Interoperability in Wireless a Concern in Industrial Applications?
While the available potential for wireless deployment in factory automation is high, the adoption of wireless is plagued by various concerns surrounding the wireless technology, one of which is lack of interoperability. In the recent past, interoperability was not as major concern as it is currently. People predominantly used to build their own systems or purchased them from a single supplier. Increasing plant automation has spurred the demand for wireless devices and systems for numerous applications like monitoring, alarm and telemetry with a large number of suppliers offering these systems or solutions. They are often customized on proprietary protocols but not based on a common standard or architecture. As a result, these devices offered from multiple suppliers are not often compatible with one another. So even though the options have increased, the end users have become more concerned about the compatibility of the devices.10/08/2008
Analysis of the Mesh Topology in ISA100.11a D2.
Before a network can be used it must be formed. As part of this formation, devices must be provisioned with a network ID and a join key. The network ID is used to associate a device with a network and the join key is used to protect the device as well as the network during the join operation. Provisioning devices can be done by the manufacturer, in the maintenance shop, or in the field. In the D2 draft neither the requirements for nor the actual physical interface for provisioning has been specified.10/07/2008
The ISA100.11a D2 draft is a major step forward over D1. The D2 document is the first draft that attempts to be a full specification of the network and application protocols for process monitoring and control devices. However, it is incomplete.
The editors have done a substantial amount of work in generating the newest version of the specification. A large number of comments were reviewed, accepted, accepted in principal or otherwise incorporated into the document. In addition, new technical material was developed to fill in the technical omissions that existed in the old document. As a result, the D2 draft requires a thorough review.
In reviewing the document the first goal is to determine if the technical details meet the overall goals stablished for the standard. This paper considers the primary goal of a standard: the interoperability and interchangeability of products (Section 6.2). The intent of this paper is to provide the reader with objective information about the draft to enable them to determine if these goals are met and to assist them in providing comments to the ISA100 committee.09/25/2008
The white paper describes the hardware and software elements of a video process monitoring system, how it uses the plants industrial network to transmit video to the control system and how the video images appear on HMI screens.09/10/2008
Control editor Walt Boyes speaks to the TÜV Safety Symposium in Cologne. Read a transcript of his speech, "Warum Ist Sicherheit So Schwer?/Why Is Safety so HARD?09/02/2008
Business drivers to improve performance, such as supply chain performance and operational effectiveness, require that integration of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and shop-floor systems is considered. Many manufacturing companies have implemented the SAP R/3 ERP system, supporting core business processes including financials, sales, distribution and so on. The manufacturing processes may be controlled by a combination of automatic control equipment and human operators. SAP R/3 supports production planning functionality in its PP (standard production planning) module and sub-modules PP-PI (production planning for the process industries), PP-REP (repetitive manufacturing) and PP-Kanban. These modules support the exchange of data with external systems. However, the technology issues associated with such data exchange are part of a broader set of challenges that an integration project must address if the intended business benefits are to be obtained. This paper examines a business-driven approach to integration and explores recent project experience integrating shop-floor systems with the PP and PP-PI modules.08/28/2008
One of the current problems of batch automation specialists, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, is the integration of PLC-controlled units (package units, e.g. centrifuges, dryers) into DCS-like control systems maintaining homogenous structure. On the basis of IEC 61512-1:1997 standard Workgroup 2 of Hungarian Batch Forum prepared a draft Proposal for users and manufacturers of package units that suggests different methods for the integration of package units. The paper discusses the integration from a system-architecture point of view while the communication problems of control equipment are not considered.08/28/2008
In the recent years, batch process optimization has made significant advances. The efforts that went into the development of ISA-S88/IEC 61512 batch control standard has helped us in this direction. However, in todays highly competitive environment, optimization of individual manufacturing plants is not enough. In order to maximize the return on investments, control engineers must turn their attentions to site and company wide optimization along with the optimization of the supply chains. Typically, batch processes use many different raw materials to produce various products and grades of products. Market demands require frequent changes in product mix under short notice. Thus, batch processes offers greater opportunities than typical continuous processes for the optimization of raw material and intermediate supplies, production scheduling, and upstream and downstream transportations. For the last five years, the ISA-SP95 committee has been developing the standards for integration of control systems with business systems. This effort is significantly helping site and company wide optimization of manufacturing processes. Additionally, the recent developments in Internet and intranet technologies are increasing the feasibility of supply chain optimization. Today, the challenge for control engineers is to broaden their focus from narrow control issues to wider aspects of enterprise-wide optimization.08/28/2008
Successful Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing in a GMP regulated environment is heavily dependent on the flexibility and utilisation of the available processing plant and its guaranteed performance. However, changing plant configuration and revalidation is time consuming and therefore costly. This paper presents a case study of the implementation of an S88.01 based control system, as part of a strategy to change an existing process building with single product manufacturing capability, to a multipurpose plant and contrasts it with an earlier retrofit implementation to a similar plant for multi-product use. The paper reviews some important considerations in the equipment model design including the design approach for the control system architecture and methodologies employed for software coding of generic phases, which have been found to yield real economic benefits and ensure the achievement of the required plant flexibility. It also reviews the benefits to the design and validation process from following a structured 'GAMP3' approach. Some of the measurable economic benefits achieved will be shown to include reduced project implementation time, life cycle cost savings through reduced manpower effort during the engineering and validation stages and production capacity increase.08/28/2008