White Papers

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  • Throughput Improvement at Henkel Surface Technologies

    Henkel Surface Technologies has significantly increased plant throughput and capacity utilization - resulting in substantial savings in terms of infrastructure investment and cost per pound produced. The program, TIP (throughput improvement program), is an employee-driven integrated cost management effort that has had corporate-wide impact in operations, finance and marketing/sales. In manufacturing operations, the systemized daily report of operations (DRO) provides floor communications between employees and management to drive improvement. Captured metrics include attainment to schedule, attainment to standard, operator noted opportunities, and others. Reporting from the DRO identifies and prioritizes improvement opportunities. In finance, the captured information forms the foundation for benchmark reporting that tracks improvements by trending selected process metrics. This in turn is used to develop detail product-byproduct costs for more than 6,000 individual sku's. Database reporting allows the information to be analyzed in a variety of formats with an emphasis on product complexity and its impact on operations. The cost information is then communicated corporate-wide through the product cost and financial reporting systems. In marketing and sales, cost information, accessed through margin reports and profit and loss statements impacts business area decisions, while also influencing product rationalization decisions. Rationalization decisions, formerly primarily volume-based, now incorporate complexity factors that directly impact operations.

    Rick Luedecke, Mfg Development Mgr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Doug Sanders, Mfg Development Spvsr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Dean D. Baker,
  • Automatic Adaptation of Batch Logic to Changing Levels of Field Automation

    As batch processes are automated, it is common to leave certain less essential field devices without automatic actuators. Thus, the initial control design must accommodate both automated and manual activities. Later, the manual field devices may be automated, either one-at-a-time or in related groups as equipment modules. These field changes, often occurring over a period of years, each require rework of the batch control logic, which can easily exceed the cost of the actuator. In response to this undesirable situation, a technique has been developed which permits the batch design to automatically modify itself, or evolve, to accommodate changes in field automation. This approach yields significant benefits: • Initial design treats all field devices as if they are automated, • Recipe includes logic for both automatic and manual devices, • Batch Journal logs manual device actions, • Field devices may be automated over any time period, • Virtually zero modification time for batch logic, • No redesign, patches, or work-around, • No dead code or wasted engineering. This paper describes the problem, illustrates a practical solution, and explores the resulting benefits.

    David A. Christie, Consulting Batch Applications Engineer, Yokogawa Corporation of America
  • Batch Application Migration

    The ‘migration’ of an existing Batch application, either by replacement or upgrade of the batch ‘engine’, or the entire replacement of the control system, raises many issues. This paper covers the work involved, and the benefits and pitfalls expected, in contemplating a replacement of the batch engine or the entire control system, and the analysis and justification necessary for a migration to realise potential benefits. Examples will be used where a validated pharmaceutical plant converted to a new ‘S88 aware’ batch engine and chemical plants replaced the entire control system. In both cases the benefits and problems and techniques used to ensure a successful conversion and achieve the potential benefits, including increased yield and quality and reduced cycle times, will be discussed. Also covered will be applications (batch reactor), with examples, where a batch engine was not necessary but the provision of this solution on a new plant did produce many primary and secondary benefits. The paper will conclude with a breakdown of the main technical and engineering issues involved and the justification and benefits that may be attained.

    Paul Wilson, Batch Specialist, Foxboro GB Ltd
  • Batch Automation Project Increases Production

    The upgrade of an existing operational plant to a new control system can be full of uncertainties, especially in the areas of operability, downtime, and benefit. Cabot Corporation recently upgraded their Treated Silica operations in Tuscola, Illinois to Batch software, new PLC processors, and an upgrade of the existing HMI's to the latest version of the vendor’s software. The previous system was using older PLC's with HMI’s in a semi-automatic configuration. The system relied heavily on the operators to make critical batch decisions and mechanical equipment adjustments. Cabot utilized the services of a batch software provider/developer, who developed the new system using S88 standards. The system started up with minimal downtime and has delivered as promised. The Units have seen as much as 30% increased throughput, production record keeping has become more accurate, and the product has become more consistent. These gains were achieved by the automation of a great majority of the operator’s former manual tasks, which included the use of batching technology and the addition of more automation equipment in the field. Additionally, to speed production and fulfill Cabot's production needs for greater throughput, recipe entry onto the batch list is now handled using specialized campaign software.

    Tom Branch, Senior Project Engineer, Application Systems Engineering, Rockwell Automation; Todd Ray, Senior Process Engineer, Cabot Corporation
  • Batch Processing in a Wider Perspective

    With the “new economy” comes new requirements on all manufacturing and processing activities, including batch processing. The entire chain of activities – from order placement to delivery – must work seamlessly. This implies that batch processing must be dealt with in a wider concept. In batch systems of today there are generally no means for synchronization or coordination of activities outside the scope of the batch. The solution presented in this paper is to have a flexible but yet tructured component-based system where the batch-processing system will constitute one part – nevertheless an important part - of the entire system. The entire system corresponds to a MES system, which can be structured according to the standard ISA S95. A framework is used to synchronize and coordinate the activities of the different components. The execution of a batch is handled by the batch-execution-component, which is S88 compliant. The batch execution component can be synchronized with other components at the stop and start of a batch but also during the execution in a sequential or parallel way. Examples are given in the paper. The benefits of this approach are vital in the “new economy”, where quicker “time-to-market” and “production-agility” become even more important. A system with well designed components and a flexible and user-friendly framework will shorten the project design time, the project implementation time, and the required time for introducing a new product on the market. By having a well-organized MES system in which the execution of the different cells can be synchronized, the production capacity of the area can increase.

    Charlotta Johnsson, Product Manager Cube-XBatch, Orsi-Group
  • Breaking From Equipment in General Recipes

    The successful application of general recipes requires a significant break from the equipment centric S88 model of Master Recipes. The proven Modular Batch Automation concept, centered on the unit and equipment model, does not apply when equipment independent general recipes are developed. Even though a general recipe may define equipment constraints, it is not equipment centric, but instead uses materials as the primary organizational element. A general recipe defines the materials to be used, their order of addition or extraction, and the actions to be taken on the materials. This leads to a different set of rules to organize the general recipe procedural model. This paper defines the rules we have found useful for determining process stage and process operation boundaries. These rules include material and equipment constraints, but also include business level constraints associated with the identification and tracking of intermediate materials. These rules result in general recipes that can be readily transformed into process cell-specific equipment recipes for a variety of equipment layouts.

    Dennis Brandl, Senior Director- Strategic Initiatives, Sequencia Corporation
  • c-Commerce Models for Batch Manufacturings

    Batch manufacturing, for specialty products, offers a unique challenge to e-commerce systems. The ability to electronically define unambiguous customer requirements, using S88.01 general recipes, supports new Internet business processes. These processes support the collaborative development of the product definitions, leading to automatic generation of process manufacturing instructions. Collaborations occur within a company, between a company and its supply chain partners, between a company and its customers, or even in an open marketplace. Multi-company, roll-based processes define the collaborative workflow required to convert product requirements to process descriptions (general recipes), and process descriptions to manufacturing instructions (master recipes). These collaborative processes are substantially different from the auction and reverse auction workflows that occur in typical MRO procurement e-commerce solutions. This paper illustrates several different ccommerce models that apply to batch manufacturing. These models include intra-company coordination and inter-company collaboration around general recipes for product development and manufacturing deployment using the ISA S88 and ISA95 models.

    Michael Saucier, Founder and Chief Technology Officer, Sequencia
  • Delivering Process Information to the Desktop Using Next-Generation Microsoft Office Products

    Optimizing production starts with collecting and analyzing a wide variety of data, including continuous process data, batch event data, and other event data, such as material movements and manual operations. Until now, manufacturers have had to rely on costly approaches for integrating and analyzing the process information they need to better understand and improve their production. What’s required is a cost-effective, easy-to-use method of querying, analyzing, and presenting information at the desktop of plant supervisors, engineers, and management. The right solution takes advantage of open technologies and commodity desktop tools and hides the underlying complexity that comes from dealing with diverse data sources. Proprietary or industrial desktop tools have not provided the ease of use and flexibility available in today’s office products. Standard Microsoft Office products and web browsers will significantly lower the cost of delivering information to the desktop. The future lies in using these powerful new commodity tools to provide batch and continuous process information to the desktops of business decision-makers and other knowledge workers in the plant and throughout the enterprise.

    Steve Zarichniak, Applications Consultant- Systems Business Center, Honeywell IC
  • Designing Batch Systems for e-Manufacturing

    In today’s global environment, a true competitive advantage can be attained for companies by designing their batch systems to integrate with technologies for “e-Manufacturing”. Through proper planning, design, and implementation, organizations not only have a means to efficiently automate batch operations, they now have an opportunity to optimize their operations. A properly integrated control domain / enterprise management system provides real time information needed for making timely management decisions. Interoperability of these systems for e-Manufacturing requires electronic data flows dependent upon such issues as production requirements, timing considerations, quality assurance results, resource allocation, and report generation. In addition, conformance with emerging U.S. Federal legislation such as the E-Sign Act (effective October 1, 2000), and FDA’s 21 CFR Part 11 (E-Records; E-Signatures, effective March 20, 1997) can be addressed as an integral part of project design. The importance of understanding the “electronic” requirements of e-Manufacturing provides a basis for designing new systems and upgrading legacy systems to meet each organization’s own enterprise demands. This paper provides insight into the design and requirements of batch process systems for integration with manufacturing and business systems for today’s e-Manufacturing environment.

    Kenneth S. Kovacs, V. P.- Pharmaceutical and Healthcare, Real Enterprise Solutions
  • Design Methods to Defer Costs on Batch Projects

    This paper analyzes two methods of deferring costs associated with the installation of batch automation systems. The first defers cost by postponing the configuration of recipes and batch management until after start-up. With this method operations personnel manually coordinate the execution of phases and maintain a paper batch record. Often this leads to a design that uses larger and more specialized phases since the execution of the recipe is not automated. A batch management package and recipes can be added at some later time to create a fully automated process. The alternative design implements the batch management package up-front, postponing the configuration of automatic phases until later. Operations personnel would then use the batch management package to guide them through the process as they manipulate the control modules at the direction of the batch management package. Automated phases are implemented in stages deferring costs over time. This implementation can be carried out in a prioritized order, based on operator input, specifying which process operations are the most time consuming and difficult. The two methodologies are examined for potential pitfalls and benefits of each. Compromises that must be made, as well as the functional advantages and deficiencies of each approach will be discussed.

    Thomas E. Crowl, Principal Application Engineer, Siemens Moore; James V. Heckmanski, Sr. Project Engineer – Batch Solutions, Siemens Moore
  • Do We Really Understand What We are Doing? Does anyone else?

    This paper focuses on the difficulty of adequately understanding and clearly describing the functionality a manufacturing process is to have before hard implementation decisions are cast in stone. Traditional functional specifications are necessary, but are often not complete until the design process is well along and are typically extensive, detailed documents that take a long time to write, are not completed until many design decisions have already been made, and require so much time to read and understand that timely feedback is difficult to get. This paper presents the argument that a clear, simple functional description, essentially a functional specification lite, is required very early in any design process. Based on the S88 model, the functional description is useful for any type of process, is the basis for early agreement on the way the process will function, is the starting point for a detailed functional specification, and can be the basis for defining what should be automated – and, perhaps more important, what should not.

    Lynn W. Craig, President, Manufacturing Automation Associates, Inc.
  • A DuPont Batch Automation Project Experience

    When presented with the problem of having to increase capacity 25% for a $100M/yr DuPont fluorochemical business, the solution was to fully automate the bottleneck of its supply chain, a batch process. Although the process already had a DCS, it was not nearly used to the potential it could be if additional instrumentation and automation software were installed. The journey taken to complete this solution taught us a lot about how to properly run a batch automation project. Upon completion of the project, we were presented another challenge. DuPont’s largest competitor withdrew from the market dramatically increasing product demand. With no additional capital, we were able to further increase capacity another 40%.

    John W. W. Wood Jr, Technical Engineer, DuPont; Vernon F. Morenas, R&D Engineer, DuPont
  • E-Business Will Change Manufacturing Strategies

    Initially E-Business was surrounded by much hype, but, eventually, E-Business will enable new business models in manufacturing. Collaboration processes, touted in E-Business, are only possible if manufacturing is an agile component of the extended supply chain. A product must be made to a demand signal or accurate forecast to fulfill the order and ensure a satisfied customer. However, EBusiness has not yet been adequately translated by the business into actionable manufacturing priorities. E-Business Trading Exchanges will eventually move from procurement buy side to sell side processes. In the automation process, more inventories will be eliminated from the supply chain. Reliable delivery from manufacturing will become more critical as the margin for error diminishes. Manufacturers must focus on consistency and delivery to demand. Integration of plant information processes and product specification management as part of managing the product lifecycle is important manufacturing foundations for E-Business. S88 and SP95 provide a useful framework to support these strategies. Most manufacturers are still translating business strategies into coordinated IT and business initiatives. They are trying to do too much and many IT initiatives are still disconnected. This will constrain E-Business initiatives dependent on integrated back end IT and business processes. To prepare for E-Business manufacturers must build organizational readiness and governance, manage integration, and integrate information across the extended supply chain against priorities set by the business strategy. This paper will discuss industry trends, pitfalls, and make pragmatic recommendations for manufacturers confronted with the challenge of moving manufacturing to align with emerging EBusiness Strategies.

    Roddy Martin, Service Director- CPG and Lifesciences Manufacturing, AMR Research
  • Emerging Trends In The Petrochemical Industry

    Changing market conditions are forcing batch-manufacturing facilities to modify the way they conduct business. The demand for software and hardware vendors to provide a higher level of batch automation is increasing. This demand is being fueled by a shortage of knowledge-workers coupled with the demand for flexible manufacturing environments. Industry standards for software and batch-control are emerging rapidly. These standards are helping to improve the interconnectivity of many products. E-commerce will be the area for growth during this decade. Many companies are already buying and selling products through business-to-business portals on the Internet. The ability for a company to respond to ever changing manufacturing demands will determine their success or failure in the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss these business trends along with the impact of new standards on the batch industry. The paper describes several examples of companies that have been able to leverage infrastructure investments while successfully applying these emerging standards.

    Tom Hosea, Batch Applications Specialist, OSI Software Inc.
  • Implementing A Manufacturing Execution System At Chevron Chemical Oak Point Plant

    In the past, manufacturing facilities with extensive automation opportunities, such as those around continuous processes, have been able to achieve a high level of integration. The integration has typically broken at the points where manual intervention is needed in an otherwise automated process, such as in the product movements areas, and on smaller batch processes. This partial integration at the manufacturing facility has made integration to an enterprise resource planning system fragile at best, and unsuccessful in the majority of cases. To get around the challenges of a mixed initiative operation, manufacturers have had to make large capital investments in automating the manual tasks. These capital investments often involved long lead times, process unit shutdowns, and could be only marginally profitable in smaller facilities. This paper describes how the Chevron Chemical Oak Point plant is using production and batch management software and the S88 methodology to implement a manufacturing execution system (MES) to manage the full life-cycle of production work orders, including manual, semi-automatic and automatic processes. The solution combines Web technology and several commercial software packages.

    Dave Blosser, IT Manager, Chevron Chemical; Darrell Tanner, Batch Consultant, Honeywell Hi-Spec Solutions
  • MES-DCS Integration Case Study

    This paper addresses the design and implementation of a real time, batch scheduling and material reporting interface between MES and DCS applications in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) environment. Included is a discussion of the process functionality and data model applied to successfully implement such an interface. The design approach applies standardized technologies where possible to help ensure inter-application compatibility, data integrity, and continued expandability.

    Richard E. Parapar, Principal Systems Architect- Operations Systems, Genentech, Inc.
  • Operations Excellence

    Our premise is that functional organizations, namely Production, Quality and Information Technology, have traditionally solved problems by rapid problem definition, solution design and implementation of automated controls or other computer systems. The new economy represents a new set of challenges to that approach. These challenges take the form of worldwide production and distribution, cost pressures, site consolidation and more stringent FDA requirements. Meeting these challenges requires a new method of problem solving in the areas of manufacturing and quality control. This will also have a significant impact on the roles and responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) organization in supporting these two organizations. This paper is based on consulting work that dealt with the overall business transformation associated with management and control of batch records while improving operating efficiency and reducing risk.

    Patrick Hurley, Principal, Cap Gemini Ernst & Young
  • Product Life Cycle Management and the General Recipe a Case Study

    To adapt to today's shifting market and customer requirements, an enterprise must be increasingly agile to redefine its products. Organizational barriers introduce delays and inconsistencies in the transfer of this information. At the same time, a global enterprise needs to ensure that products are manufactured consistently, wherever they are developed or made in the supply chain . This paper presents a case study of the development and implementation of an electronic Product Lifecycle Management application to successfully address these challenges, for a premium brand food manufacturer. The business requirements are defined and mapped against the capabilities of commercial software products. To ensure that the application can evolve, as business needs change, the use of existing and emerging standards, recommendations and technologies is evaluated. The organization and project approach to involve all disciplines, redefine the product development processes and successfully introduce this new technology is described. In the conclusion a brief overview is given of the scope and uses of the application, the expected benefits are illustrated and recommendations are made to improve batch standards.

    John Delhez, Sr Product Manager, Honeywell-POMS Corp.
  • Repeated S88 Success Yields Cost Reductions at Large Consumer Products Company

    A large consumer products company was faced with implementing multiple new product lines to meet product demands. Using S88 models for batch process control across the multiple process and product lines this company was able to achieve a high degree of engineering re-use. Key elements in this success were teaming with the automation provider to achieve requirement definition and applying object-oriented design techniques. The state transition documentation allowed for ease of understanding and repeated application. The S88 models, applied to the process resulted in improved product quality and consistency, recipe flexibility and increased productivity. Engineering re-use allowed a significant reduction in the time to production for repeated application. Project Design and Implementation time also showed a significant reduction. Additional business benefit has been realized, through the application of S88 principles. This has come from capital cost and project risk reduction through reuse of tried-andtrusted components and improved manufacturing flexibility and faster introduction of new products.

    Mark P. Givens, Project Engineer, Rockwell Automation; Andrew McDonald, Control Engineer, Unilever Research
  • S88.01 Models and Commissioning / Qualification Mapping

    The following paper makes a link between ISA-S88.01 Batch Control Models and Terminology, and key features and terminology, used in ISPE Baseline Pharmaceutical Engineering Guide: Commissioning and Qualification. The problem is how to extend effects of modular design, based on S88.01 models, to other activities: application software development, FAT, commissioning, qualification & validation. The solution is the linkage between different islands of terminology, knowledge, experiences and views: design, user, control system vendor, package unit vendor, quality assurance and maintenance. S88.01 physical model, procedural control model and process model provide consistent definition of commissioning, qualification and validation scope. Implementing the proposed method results in reduction of manpower, expenses of documentation and project implementation time.

    Marin Klaric, Manager of Department for Designing, PLIVA
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