White Papers

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  • Assuring Industrial Control System (ICS) Cyber Security

    Joe Weiss, Control's Unfettered blogger, was asked by CSIS to prepare a white paper on cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems. CSIS is the Center for Stategic and International Studies, which was tasked in a bipartisan manner to form a blue ribbon committee to prepare cybersecurity recommendations for the next administration. This white paper is posted by permission of CSIS and Joe Weiss.

    Control and Joe Weiss are posting this white paper as a pro bono public service. The registration is solely to keep track for security purposes of who downloads the white paper and will not be used for commercial purposes.

    Joe Weiss PE, CISM
  • Identifying Benefits for S-88 and S-95 Based Systems

    System Architectures using S-88 and S-95 standards are being used in system implementations across the plant floor. These systems include batch management, MES, process control and ERP integration. For regulated industries, electronic record keeping and system validation must be addressed in these new initiatives. When implemented as applications, these architectural components are designed to provide benefits that support the company’s business drivers. These benefits often overlap as the interfaces between applications become blurred as application vendors are changing functionality. Using S-88 and S-95 standards and an architectural approach, system requirements can be related directly to benefits. This paper presents system life cycle architecture for implementing pharmaceutical automation projects. Primary, secondary and strategic benefit sources for measurable economic benefits in each functional area of regulated and non-regulated operations. Realized benefits are presented for actual implementations across the plant floor.

    Joseph F. deSpautz, Aurora Biosciences Corporation; Baha U. Korkmaz, Automation Vision Inc.
  • Batch Distillation: Practical Aspects of Design and Control

    Distillation, both batch and continuous, is the most often used separation technique in the Specialty Chemical Industry. While continuous distillation has historically received the most attention, batch distillation has suffered from some public neglect. This paper will present a summary of design basis criteria and control strategies for a multi-purpose batch still. Given the multiple product and flexible processing requirements of batch manufacturing, optimization of a batch distillation process is generally very equipment and process specific, unless the equipment was designed and is used for manufacturing a single product. The concepts presented here are suitable for processing over 80% of the Crude encountered in the industry and the design features and control strategies shown have accounted for 15-30% improved yields and throughputs.

    Manuel R. Florez, Senior Engineer, Millennium Chemicals, Inc.
  • Batch Management in the Supply Chain

    Batch management systems are traditionally composed of two subparts, one assuring the creation and configuration of the recipes, and the other assuring the execution of the recipes, i.e., driving the equipments to make a product. By reducing the total time needed for producing a product, the market can be reached quicker and more money can (hopefully) be earned. Time to market is an important key competitive performance indicator. So, how can time to market be reduced? The execution part of the batch management system must obviously work efficiently, but this alone will not be enough. Personnel, materials, scheduling and maintenance information sent from the ERP system must also be managed in an efficient way. The problem is that traditional batch management systems are not intended to or capable of handling this information. Neither are they intended to handle information concerning warehouses, packaging or material receiving. Rather than extending the batch management system beyond its core role, the importance of the MES system and its capabilities should be stressed. An approach based on the ideas and models presented in ISA S95 is believed to be successful. Dedicated cross industry components manage the functions that are decidedly non-batch. Similar to a traditional batch management system that coordinates and synchronizes the recipe execution, a MES system should do the same for the functions of the components. Applying this approach, the batch management system can truly work in the context of the supply chain!!!

    Charlotta Johnsson, System Architect, Siemens Orsi Automation S.p.A.
  • Electronic Batch Records and Flexible Batch Reporting

    S88.01 defines batch history as 'a collection of data relating to one batch'. This is expanded by S88.02 to show that a batch history is an aggregation of both common and batch specific elements. A batch history may be made up of data collected by several systems and held in multiple locations. From this collection of data it may be required to produce for different purposes several batch reports. This paper reviews with the aid of case studies some methods of implementing flexible batch historian and batch reporting systems and discusses some of the issues faced such as 21CFR part 11 compliance and the integration of time series data and batch event data.

    Eur Ing C. M. Marklew BSc CEng FinstMC MIEE, Aston Dane plc
  • Exception Handling in S88 using Grafchart

    Exception handling constitutes a large part of the design and implementation effort in batch production, but so far little work has been carried out to specify this area. This paper proposes an internal model approach for equipment unit supervision using Grafchart. It also discusses exception handling at the recipe level.

    Rasmus Olsson and Karl-Erik Årzén, Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology
  • General Recipes As Contracts With Manufacturing

    General recipes are the ANSI/ISA 88’s definition of how to document the way a product is manufactured without specifying the exact production equipment. General recipes are transformed through an engineering process into master recipes, and they can often map to a wide range of physical equipment layouts. The target equipment often varies in unit layout, level of automation, physical properties, and process control capability. Usually, local engineers with a deep understanding of the target process cell layout do the transformation from a general or site recipe to a master recipe. The general recipe thus becomes the controlling document that is exchanged between sites. The general recipe can be considered a “contract” document between Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing, defining the chemistry and physics that must be performed to manufacture the product. Because this document must be unambiguous, the elements that make up the general recipe must also have an unambiguous definition. In the ANSI/ISA 88 model these elements are process actions and equipment constraints. The actions and constraints are used during master recipe creation to identify master recipe unit procedures and operations and to bind the master recipe unit procedures to equipment. This paper defines the rules and considerations in defining corporate-wide process actions and equipment constraints so that they can become the complete and unambiguous definitions required by manufacturing.

    Dennis Brandl, BR&L Consulting
  • Integrating Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) Within An S88 Structure

    An S88.01-aware automation system covers the control & management of activities carried out within plant equipment directly connected to it via hardwired, serial or fieldbus links. Batches begin and end within these confines. Plant managers see a wider picture; eg Process fluid, the batch with its ID, maybe transferred from conventional reactors to Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) and later returned to the piped plant. This application uses soft (PC) phases within the S88 operation to deal with transfers to & from IBCs. Rather than implementing sequence logic in a plant controller the soft phases interface with an SQL database which tracks the batch ID as process fluid is transferred ‘out of the piped plant’. The SQL server database interfaces in turn with radio barcode scanners, which identify IBCs, reactors, operators & IBC storage rooms used in each transfer. Batch ID is preserved between transfers and the operator view from the automation system is of a batch held in a unit (the IBC). The status of any IBC, eg clean, batch ID inside, may be instantly determined via the barcode scanner. The following benefits are realised: Cycle time reduction, Reduction in abnormal occurrences, Production capacity increase, Improved safety

    Nick Taylor, Manager, Business Pursuit Lead Engineer, Emerson Process Management; Pete Davies, Integration Projects, Emerson Process Management
  • Process Modeling & Efficient Engineering

    The modelling of a Batch Process and breaking down into S88 modular components is key to an easy and cost effective control software solution. This paper looks at the issues involved with engineering a batch control system, in relation to modelling, unit acquisition and transfers of material, including the use of generic coding techniques and ‘multiplexing’ or unit relative design. There are many ways to engineer a batch application even using S88 concepts. Real case studies will be used, where two batch applications have been engineered on the same site over the last 5 years. The first placed a high emphasis on control station coding and complexity within the phase and sequences. The later case was designed to fully use the capability of the Batch Supervisor to optimise engineering and maintenance and provide the functionality required. A comparison of these two methodologies provides a good insight into the benefits and disadvantages of each, in relation to engineering, testing and on-going maintenance.

    Paul Wilson, Batch Consultant, Invensys Software Systems (Foxboro)
  • Project Management of Batch Control Projects: How to avoid the Pitfalls

    Batch control projects have tended to be software intensive and often overrun substantially. In most cases this is due to a lack of foresight and planning in the early stages. The “S88 Era” has tried to alleviate this situation by providing a structured methodology – but again the flexibility of current control systems and a lack of planning can produce the same effect as having no structure at all. This paper aims to highlight some potential problems and pitfalls and how they may be contained without adversely affecting the outcome of the project.

    Dr. Maurice J. Wilkins, Managing Director, Breakthrough Process Consulting
  • Synthesis of Optimal Batch Distillation Sequences

    After the original design is completed, optimum Batch Distillation Sequencing/Operation in a chemical plant is usually a matter of trial and error that evolves as operators gain experience with the system. Some predictive tools exist for simulating batch separation systems, and they have been used with success in designing new separation systems and in analyzing existing systems. However, these tools require the user to define all the operation steps for each cut. The number of case studies required to approach an optimum scenario is very large, and is almost impossible to accomplish. Optimal design and operation, however, is the ultimate goal. In this paper we propose how to truly optimize a batch separation sequence. Combining the flowsheeting and modeling features of a process simulator provides an advantageous way to analyze and optimize operating scenarios for optimum batch separation sequencing. This approach is demonstrated with the optimization/debottlenecking of several batch distillation scenarios to separate and recover a heavy product, a partially water-miscible solvent, and water from a batch reactor effluent. Simulations identified a 25% increase in capacity with a minimum capital investment.

    Matthew J. Engel, Senior Process Engineer, Air Products and Chemicals Inc.; Bradley H. Cook, Craig S. Landis, Steven J. Tedeschi, Anthony J. Zehnder
  • Things Go Better with S88: A New Approach to the Engineering Process

    Investments in process control systems will claim a large percentage of capital investments in modern manufacturing facilities. In order to maximize return on these investments, automation concepts must be developed at the early stages of the project and detailed in parallel with the process, equipment, and facility components as the engineering work progresses. However, it is difficult to illustrate control strategies for complex batch operations on PFDs and P&IDs, therefore the control system Functional Specification must come to life early and be used more effectively as a living document which is developed together with the process design. This paper presents a case study on the application of S88.01 in the design of a multi-product biotech manufacturing facility, where flexibility, modularity, and CGMP compliance were major objectives. It shows how the models presented in the standard can be applied to develop automation concepts, which are defined in a Functional Specification that supports effective review and input by all members of the project team. This approach ensures that the automation strategy meets the project objectives, and that important concepts are not lost or mistranslated in the transition from concept through detailed design and final implementation.

    Vince Miller, Automation Services Director, BE&K Engineering
  • Throughput Improvement at Henkel Surface Technologies

    Henkel Surface Technologies has significantly increased plant throughput and capacity utilization - resulting in substantial savings in terms of infrastructure investment and cost per pound produced. The program, TIP (throughput improvement program), is an employee-driven integrated cost management effort that has had corporate-wide impact in operations, finance and marketing/sales. In manufacturing operations, the systemized daily report of operations (DRO) provides floor communications between employees and management to drive improvement. Captured metrics include attainment to schedule, attainment to standard, operator noted opportunities, and others. Reporting from the DRO identifies and prioritizes improvement opportunities. In finance, the captured information forms the foundation for benchmark reporting that tracks improvements by trending selected process metrics. This in turn is used to develop detail product-byproduct costs for more than 6,000 individual sku's. Database reporting allows the information to be analyzed in a variety of formats with an emphasis on product complexity and its impact on operations. The cost information is then communicated corporate-wide through the product cost and financial reporting systems. In marketing and sales, cost information, accessed through margin reports and profit and loss statements impacts business area decisions, while also influencing product rationalization decisions. Rationalization decisions, formerly primarily volume-based, now incorporate complexity factors that directly impact operations.

    Rick Luedecke, Mfg Development Mgr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Doug Sanders, Mfg Development Spvsr, Henkel SurfaceTechnologies; Dean D. Baker,
  • Automatic Adaptation of Batch Logic to Changing Levels of Field Automation

    As batch processes are automated, it is common to leave certain less essential field devices without automatic actuators. Thus, the initial control design must accommodate both automated and manual activities. Later, the manual field devices may be automated, either one-at-a-time or in related groups as equipment modules. These field changes, often occurring over a period of years, each require rework of the batch control logic, which can easily exceed the cost of the actuator. In response to this undesirable situation, a technique has been developed which permits the batch design to automatically modify itself, or evolve, to accommodate changes in field automation. This approach yields significant benefits: • Initial design treats all field devices as if they are automated, • Recipe includes logic for both automatic and manual devices, • Batch Journal logs manual device actions, • Field devices may be automated over any time period, • Virtually zero modification time for batch logic, • No redesign, patches, or work-around, • No dead code or wasted engineering. This paper describes the problem, illustrates a practical solution, and explores the resulting benefits.

    David A. Christie, Consulting Batch Applications Engineer, Yokogawa Corporation of America
  • Batch Application Migration

    The ‘migration’ of an existing Batch application, either by replacement or upgrade of the batch ‘engine’, or the entire replacement of the control system, raises many issues. This paper covers the work involved, and the benefits and pitfalls expected, in contemplating a replacement of the batch engine or the entire control system, and the analysis and justification necessary for a migration to realise potential benefits. Examples will be used where a validated pharmaceutical plant converted to a new ‘S88 aware’ batch engine and chemical plants replaced the entire control system. In both cases the benefits and problems and techniques used to ensure a successful conversion and achieve the potential benefits, including increased yield and quality and reduced cycle times, will be discussed. Also covered will be applications (batch reactor), with examples, where a batch engine was not necessary but the provision of this solution on a new plant did produce many primary and secondary benefits. The paper will conclude with a breakdown of the main technical and engineering issues involved and the justification and benefits that may be attained.

    Paul Wilson, Batch Specialist, Foxboro GB Ltd
  • Batch Automation Project Increases Production

    The upgrade of an existing operational plant to a new control system can be full of uncertainties, especially in the areas of operability, downtime, and benefit. Cabot Corporation recently upgraded their Treated Silica operations in Tuscola, Illinois to Batch software, new PLC processors, and an upgrade of the existing HMI's to the latest version of the vendor’s software. The previous system was using older PLC's with HMI’s in a semi-automatic configuration. The system relied heavily on the operators to make critical batch decisions and mechanical equipment adjustments. Cabot utilized the services of a batch software provider/developer, who developed the new system using S88 standards. The system started up with minimal downtime and has delivered as promised. The Units have seen as much as 30% increased throughput, production record keeping has become more accurate, and the product has become more consistent. These gains were achieved by the automation of a great majority of the operator’s former manual tasks, which included the use of batching technology and the addition of more automation equipment in the field. Additionally, to speed production and fulfill Cabot's production needs for greater throughput, recipe entry onto the batch list is now handled using specialized campaign software.

    Tom Branch, Senior Project Engineer, Application Systems Engineering, Rockwell Automation; Todd Ray, Senior Process Engineer, Cabot Corporation
  • Batch Processing in a Wider Perspective

    With the “new economy” comes new requirements on all manufacturing and processing activities, including batch processing. The entire chain of activities – from order placement to delivery – must work seamlessly. This implies that batch processing must be dealt with in a wider concept. In batch systems of today there are generally no means for synchronization or coordination of activities outside the scope of the batch. The solution presented in this paper is to have a flexible but yet tructured component-based system where the batch-processing system will constitute one part – nevertheless an important part - of the entire system. The entire system corresponds to a MES system, which can be structured according to the standard ISA S95. A framework is used to synchronize and coordinate the activities of the different components. The execution of a batch is handled by the batch-execution-component, which is S88 compliant. The batch execution component can be synchronized with other components at the stop and start of a batch but also during the execution in a sequential or parallel way. Examples are given in the paper. The benefits of this approach are vital in the “new economy”, where quicker “time-to-market” and “production-agility” become even more important. A system with well designed components and a flexible and user-friendly framework will shorten the project design time, the project implementation time, and the required time for introducing a new product on the market. By having a well-organized MES system in which the execution of the different cells can be synchronized, the production capacity of the area can increase.

    Charlotta Johnsson, Product Manager Cube-XBatch, Orsi-Group
  • Breaking From Equipment in General Recipes

    The successful application of general recipes requires a significant break from the equipment centric S88 model of Master Recipes. The proven Modular Batch Automation concept, centered on the unit and equipment model, does not apply when equipment independent general recipes are developed. Even though a general recipe may define equipment constraints, it is not equipment centric, but instead uses materials as the primary organizational element. A general recipe defines the materials to be used, their order of addition or extraction, and the actions to be taken on the materials. This leads to a different set of rules to organize the general recipe procedural model. This paper defines the rules we have found useful for determining process stage and process operation boundaries. These rules include material and equipment constraints, but also include business level constraints associated with the identification and tracking of intermediate materials. These rules result in general recipes that can be readily transformed into process cell-specific equipment recipes for a variety of equipment layouts.

    Dennis Brandl, Senior Director- Strategic Initiatives, Sequencia Corporation
  • c-Commerce Models for Batch Manufacturings

    Batch manufacturing, for specialty products, offers a unique challenge to e-commerce systems. The ability to electronically define unambiguous customer requirements, using S88.01 general recipes, supports new Internet business processes. These processes support the collaborative development of the product definitions, leading to automatic generation of process manufacturing instructions. Collaborations occur within a company, between a company and its supply chain partners, between a company and its customers, or even in an open marketplace. Multi-company, roll-based processes define the collaborative workflow required to convert product requirements to process descriptions (general recipes), and process descriptions to manufacturing instructions (master recipes). These collaborative processes are substantially different from the auction and reverse auction workflows that occur in typical MRO procurement e-commerce solutions. This paper illustrates several different ccommerce models that apply to batch manufacturing. These models include intra-company coordination and inter-company collaboration around general recipes for product development and manufacturing deployment using the ISA S88 and ISA95 models.

    Michael Saucier, Founder and Chief Technology Officer, Sequencia
  • Delivering Process Information to the Desktop Using Next-Generation Microsoft Office Products

    Optimizing production starts with collecting and analyzing a wide variety of data, including continuous process data, batch event data, and other event data, such as material movements and manual operations. Until now, manufacturers have had to rely on costly approaches for integrating and analyzing the process information they need to better understand and improve their production. What’s required is a cost-effective, easy-to-use method of querying, analyzing, and presenting information at the desktop of plant supervisors, engineers, and management. The right solution takes advantage of open technologies and commodity desktop tools and hides the underlying complexity that comes from dealing with diverse data sources. Proprietary or industrial desktop tools have not provided the ease of use and flexibility available in today’s office products. Standard Microsoft Office products and web browsers will significantly lower the cost of delivering information to the desktop. The future lies in using these powerful new commodity tools to provide batch and continuous process information to the desktops of business decision-makers and other knowledge workers in the plant and throughout the enterprise.

    Steve Zarichniak, Applications Consultant- Systems Business Center, Honeywell IC
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