White Papers

on 'Flow'

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  • How flowmeters perform self-verification

    Process manufacturing and other industrial facilities must often provide documented evidence of flowmeter performance to maintain compliance with various regulatory agencies, ensure product quality and optimize production.

    10/02/2017
  • Protect your pump and keep it longer

    Nothing damages a pump faster than the build-up of heat from dry running conditions. When there’s no liquid to provide cooling, heat destroys a pump’s bearings.

    08/08/2017
  • Versatility of thermal mass flow meters

    The thermal mass flow market is one of the fastest growing flow meter segments. It will continue to rise, due in part to cost savings associated with energy management.

    05/15/2017
  • Reduce the cost of tank blanketing

    Tank blanketing with nitrogen prevents contamination, leaks, and explosions. Download FCI's Tank Blanketing White Paper to learn how FCI’s ST100 Air/Gas Flow Meter provides precise flow measurement to reduce the cost of inert gases.

    FCI
    11/29/2016
  • Exchange Reporter: Highlights of the 2014 Emerson Global Users Exchange

    From inspiring keynotes to the latest system and product innovations to award-winning applications for reliability, wireless, quality and productivity, here's comprehensive coverage of the highlights of Emerson Exchange 2014, reported by the most experienced team in process control.

    Emerson Process Management
    02/11/2015
  • Flow and Level Instrumentation

    This State of Technology Report is a compendium of the latest trends, articles, back-to-basics tutorials, application stories and product solutions recently published in the pages of Control-compiled by the Editors and all together here in one convenient eBook.

    Control
    10/27/2014
  • eHandbook: Flow Best Practices

    In this Flow eHandbook by our sister publication Chemical Processing, solutions and strategies for managing flow challenges are discussed.

    ChemicalProcessing.com
    04/22/2014
  • Protecting Our Water – Keep Chemicals in the Tank

    Leaking or overfilled tanks containing chemicals, fuel oil, sewage or hazardous materials can cause environmental problems, contaminate drinking water and cost a company millions of dollars in fines and lawsuits. This white paper discusses instrumentation and controls that can monitor the contents of a vessel and provide an alarm in the event of a leak or overfill event.

    Bill Sholette, Ricardo Chavez, Endress+Hauser
    04/03/2014
  • Best Practices for Flow Calibration Management

    Failure to calibrate flowmeters can negatively impact performance, while calibrating too frequently can result in excessive costs without providing any benefits. So the question is, how do you determine if calibration is needed and what the frequency should be? Download this white paper to find out the answer!

    Endress+Hauser
    03/04/2014
  • Discussion of Flowmeter Accuracy Specifications

    Understanding the accuracy of a given flowmeter is an important field but it can also be misleading as different specifications are used to explain how accurate a flowmeter measurement actually measures. This paper discusses the different specifications and interprets the impact of them.

    Why deal with accuracy?

    The reasons for dealing with flowmeter accuracy specifications are many-folded. One important reason is from an economical point of view. The more accurate a flowmeter can measure, the more money you will save as the medium is measured with only very little inaccurately.

    Another reason is in terms of dosing, where a given amount of a medium is added. This must be done with a high level of precision and the accuracy is thus important in order to dose correctly. This is critical in certain industries such as in pharma or chemical.

    A third reason is in terms of billing purposes. By performing with good accuracy, you know exactly how much fluid flows into the process. Thereby, you are able to determine the right price of the product and thereby bill the customers correctly.

    Therefore, knowing how much that flows through your system is paramount in order to make a profitable and solid business. You need to rely on a precise measurement with good accuracy. However, good accuracy must be obtained not only in one measurement, but in all measurements independent of the time.

    Siemens
    01/21/2013
  • New Differential Pressure Sensor Incorporates LVDT Technology to Create More Environmentally-Resistant, Dependable and Economical Pressure Sensing Solution

    Differential pressure (dP) sensors with electronic signal processing are increasing being used to monitor flow, filter condition and level. Since these devices offer linear and accurate output, they are also replacing the differential pressure switch that only support on-off condition and useless for closed loop control system. These dPs are often configured with expensive valves and fluid filled remote seals for added protection against corrosive media, radiation and/or extreme media temperature ranges when operating in demanding environments. In cold ambient environment specially operating in temperatures below -4 deg F (-20 deg C), the sensor need to be heated either by trace heater or within a heated enclosure to maintain the operation of the dP sensor. In addition to being expensive, these valves and seals tend to be bulky and require time to install and maintain. In many critical applications such as food and pharmaceuticals, filled fluids are a serious concern due to process contamination. In gaseous systems such as hydrogen and oxygen and semiconductor applications, fluid filled sensors are being banned since the leakage of fluid into the process could lead to an explosion and serious safety issues.

    A new series of LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) based oil-less dP sensor with dual channel ASIC (applications specific integrated circuit) have been developed that can operate in a wide range of corrosive materials, radiation and temperature without any oil filling and bulky sealing systems. By encapsulating LVDT proven technology with digital compensation, the pressure sensors combine the benefits of friction-free operation, environmental robustness and unlimited mechanical life. By selecting the diaphragm thickness and material properties, Table 1 show the dP ranges that can be produced using the LVDT technology.

    American Sensor Technologies
    11/14/2012
  • Flow Measurement by the Book

    ABB's Flow Measurement Handbook has helped generations of instrumentation practitioners navigate the application ins and outs of industrial flow measurement devices. Its latest edition, entitled Industrial Flow Measurement -- Basics and Practice, is available here in manageable chapters, downloadable as PDFs, beginning with "Introduction to Flowmeter Physics Essentials," including fluid mechanical concepts such as viscosity, Reynolds number, turbulence, energy and flow rate equations.

    ABB
    05/14/2012
  • Greenhouse Gas Flow Monitoring

    Last year the EPA implemented new regulations entitled "Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases." The new regulations called for certain facilities emitting 25,000 metric tons or more per year of specified GHG's to provide an annual report of their actual GHG emissions.

    It is estimated that more than 10,000 facilities in the US meet the criteria for mandated reporting of greenhouse gases. A full description of the EPA mandate can be found on the EPA's web site.

    The EPA's reporting mandate comes in response to the goal of reducing warming gases in the atmosphere to address the consequences of global warming.

    The EPA says the present objective of the mandate is simple reporting and is not about regulating the reduction of GHG at this time, although bloggers and industry pundits speculate this is likely the next step. It's doesn't require a stretch of logic to anticipate the data collected will frame new regulations to curb the release of GHG in response to domestic and international pressure to slow the rate of global warming.

    The EPA's initial mandate in October of 2009 required 31 industry sectors that collectively equal 85 percent of US GHG emissions, to track and report their emissions. In addition to these original 31 industries, the agency in March of this year proposed to collect emissions data from the petroleum and natural gas sector, as well as from industries that emit fluorinated gases and from facilities that inject and store carbon dioxide underground for the purposes of geologic sequestration for enhanced oil and gas recovery.

    Methane is the primary GHG emitted from oil and natural gas systems and is more than 20 times as potent as carbon dioxide at warming the atmosphere, while fluorinated gases are even stronger and can stay in the atmosphere for thousands of years. The EPA says the data collected will allow businesses to track their own emissions, compare them to similar facilities, and identify cost effective ways to reduce their emissions in the future.

    Fluid Components International, Allen Kugi, Member Technical Staff Fluid Components International (FCI)
    10/28/2010
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