ACCESSIBLE ONLINE TEXTBOOK
The Process Control Education website by McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, offers the "Instrumentation for Process Control" web-based textbook for everyone from students and professional engineers, and Chapter 2.2 provides a detailed and useful introduction to flow sensors, measurement concepts and calculations.
"Resources, tools and basic information for engineering and design of technical applications" at The Engineering Toolbox include formulas and online calculators for determining the flow coefficients (Cy) and flow factors (Kv) of liquids, steam and gases. With the flow coefficient, flow capacities of valves at different sizes, types and manufacturers can be compared, and estimated Cv values can be used to select the correct valve.
The Engineering Toolbox
CHARACTERISTICS AND THEORY
The Flowmetering webpage introduces fluid characteristics and flow theory (including Bernoulli's theorem and Reynolds' numbers) to provide basic metering theory and techniques. Different meter types, instrumentation and installation practices are also discussed. Topics include fluids and flow, principles of flowmetering, types if steam flowmeters, instrumentation and installation.
This multi-part tutorial covers mass and volumetric flow, and the different ways of measuring and calculating for them, including velocity and inferential methods. The author also answers questions from previous readers in an appendix.
The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Kharagpur presents a comprehensive series of lectures on Electrical-Industrial Automation and Control, including Lecture 7 on flow measurement covering flow concepts such as Bernoulli's Principle, orifice meters, Venturi tube, differential pressure and rotameters.
Indian Institute of Technology
BACK TO BASICS ON DP MEASUREMENT
Former editor in chief of Control, Walt Boyes, delivers a classic Back to Basics presentation on differential pressure (DP) flow measurement; the importance of making sure transmitter ranges are correct for the flow rates to be measured; right-sizing primary elements; and installation requirements for liquids and gases. It's at www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9MJEjgrUqo
ELECTROMAGNETIC, ULTRASONIC, ETC.
CORIOLIS AND DENSITY
Emerson Process Management's MicroMotion division delivers a short video explaining how Coriolis flowmeters function; demonstrates how they can also measure mass flow, volume flow, density and temperature; and shows how they can improve process control and product quality, increase throughput rates and reduce maintenance costs.
Emerson Process Management
MULTI-PART MASS FLOW
ABB presents a three-part series of videos on mass flow. They're delivered by Mark Allinson, U.K. process flow specialist at ABB, who compares mass and volumetric flow measurements, and demonstrates mass flow's advantages and improved accuracy. (Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3)